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2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真



. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise



. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #heianabclist #abclist #korea -
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2017-08-12

Empress Danrin Kachiko

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
. Persons of the Heian Period .
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Danrin Koogoo 檀林皇后 empress Danrin Kogo
(786 - 850)
橘嘉智子 Tachibana no Kachiko
daughter of Tachibana no Kiyotomo 橘清友



- quote -
the empress consort of Emperor Saga.
According to some sources, she was involved in the conspiracy to accuse Crown Prince Tsunesada in 842 of attempting a coup, thus exiling him and making way for her own grandson Prince Michiyasu to take the throne as Emperor Montoku, in an event known as the Jôwa Incident.
Danrin
is said to have been extremely beautiful, and to have been distressed by the extent to which her beauty distracted Buddhist monks and others from their work or studies. According to legend, she committed suicide and left orders that her body be left unburied at a particular street corner, so that people would see her decaying body and be forced to think about the impermanence of life, beauty, and material desires.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index... -

She founded the Buddhist temple Danrin-Ji.

Danrin-ji (檀林寺) was Japan's first Zen temple, founded in Saga, Kyōto by order of Tachibana no Kachiko during the Jōwa era. The temple was destroyed by fire in 928, but was restored, and during the Muromachi period the temple was designated as one of Kyōto's five great Buddhist nunneries. The temple eventually fell into disrepair, and in 1339 construction of Tenryū-ji began on its grounds.
- source : wikipedia -

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"Nine Stages of Decomposition of the Heian Period Empress Danrin"
Danrin Koogoo Kusoozu 檀林皇后九相観 Danrin Kogo Kusozu
- source : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki... -
18th century Japanese scroll in the Honolulu Museum of Art, ex. Richard Lane Collection












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CLICK for more illustrations !

The nine stages are:

脹相(ちょうそう) - 死体が腐敗によるガスの発生で内部から膨張する。
壊相(えそう) - 死体の腐乱が進み皮膚が破れ壊れはじめる。
血塗相(けちずそう) - 死体の腐敗による損壊がさらに進み、溶解した脂肪・血液・体液が体外に滲みだす。
膿爛相(のうらんそう) - 死体自体が腐敗により溶解する。
青瘀相(しょうおそう) - 死体が青黒くなる。
噉相(たんそう) - 死体に虫がわき、鳥獣に食い荒らされる。
散相(さんそう) - 以上の結果、死体の部位が散乱する。
骨相(こつそう) - 血肉や皮脂がなくなり骨だけになる。
焼相(しょうそう) - 骨が焼かれ灰だけになる。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- Reference in Japanese 檀林皇后九相観 -
- Reference in English : empress danrin -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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2017-04-20

Soga Iruka Emishi

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Soga no Emishi 蘇我蝦夷 and Iruka 蘇我入鹿 と伝説 Legends
Soga no uji 蘇我氏 the Soga clan





- quote -
Soga no Emishi 蘇我蝦夷 (587 – July 11, 645)
was a statesman of the Yamato Imperial Court. His alternative names include Emishi (毛人) and Toyoura no Ōomi (豊浦大臣). After the death of his father Soga no Umako, Emishi took over Ōomi, the Minister of state, from his father.
According to the Nihonshoki,
from the end of the reign of Empress Suiko to that of Empress Kōgyoku, Emishi enjoyed influence in the court. After the death of Empress Suiko, Emishi succeeded in installing Prince Tamura on the throne as Emperor Jomei by citing the will of Empress Suiko. Although Prince Yamashiro was another candidate, Emishi murdered Sakaibe no Marise, his uncle who nominated Oe no Ou, paving the way for his favorite. After the discernment of Emperor Jomei, Emishi supported Empress Kōgyoku.
His daughter, Soga no Tetsuki no Iratsume, was a wife of Emperor Jomei and bore Emperor Jomei one daughter Princess Yata.
In 645, when his son Iruka was murdered in front of the Empress, Emishi committed suicide the next day.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote -
Soga no Iruka 蘇我入鹿 (? - July 10, 645)
was the son of Soga no Emishi a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan.



He was assassinated at court in a coup d'état involving Nakatomi no Kamatari and Prince Naka-no-Ōe ("Isshi no hen" 乙巳の変; Murder in the Year of Isshi - Isshi Incident), who accused him of trying to murder Prince Yamashiro, a charge which Soga no Iruka denied.
Soga no Emishi also committed suicide soon after his son's death, and the main branch of the Soga clan became extinct. Prince Naka-no-Oe latter ascended the throne as Emperor Tenji, and Nakatomi no Kamatari was promoted and given the name Fujiwara no Kamatari.
- - - - - In 2005, the remains of a building which may have been Soga no Iruka's residence were discovered in Nara. This discovery appeared to be consistent with the description found in Nihon Shoki.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote -
Soga no Umako 蘇我馬子 (?551 - June 19, 626)
was the son of Soga no Iname and a member of the powerful Soga clan of Japan.
In the late 6th century, Soga no Umako went to great lengths to promote Buddhism in Japan, and was instrumental in its acceptance.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Iruka Soga's kubizuka 首塚 Head Mound
Iruka Soga's Kubizuka, Asuka, Asuka Village. It is located on the edge of rice field, about 100 m west of Asukadera 飛鳥寺 Asuka-dera temple. It is the oldest one in Japan, founded by Soga no Umako.
There was a public space in the west of Asuka-dera, where Emperor Tenji played "kemari" kickball with Fujiwara-no-Kamatari and planned to assassinate the clan leader Soga no Iruka.

This head mound monument, reportedly made in the Kamakura Period (1285-1333), indicates the mound where
Iruka Soga (蘇我 入鹿, ?-645)'s head was allegedly buried.

He was assassinated by Prince Naka-no-Oe (中大兄皇子), Saeki-no-muraji-komaro (佐伯連子麻呂) and
Kazuragi-no-waka-Inukai-no-muraji-Amita (葛城稚犬養網田) in the presence of the 35th Empress Kogyoku (皇極天皇, 594-661; r.642-645) at the Asuka-Itabuki-no-miya Palace (飛鳥板葺宮), which is called
"Isshi no hen" (乙巳の変; the Murder in the Year of Isshi, Isshi Incident) on June 12, 645.

Empress Kogyoku, deeply shocked at the murder, soon abdicated the throne to
the 36th Emperor Kotoku (孝徳天皇, 596?-654; r.645-554).

The Soga-clan was a very powerful family who took over the reins of government and killed
Shotoku Taishi (聖徳太子)'s son Prince Yamashiro-no-Oe (山背大兄皇子), but they perished in 645 by Prince Naka-no-Oe (中大兄皇子; later Tenji-tenno [天智天皇], 626-678;r.668-671) and Kamatari Nakatomi (中臣鎌足, 614-669), the founder of the Fujiwara clan (藤原氏). It is called "Taika-no-Kaishin" (大化の改新; the Reformation of the Taika Era).


Copyright (c) 2006 Eishiro Ito. All rights reserved.
- source : :Atelier Aterui - with more information !


. kubizuka 首塚 head mounds of Japan .

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Iruka Jinja 入鹿神社 Iruka Shrine
奈良県橿原市小綱町 / Shokocho, Kashihara, Nara

Deities in residence
蘇我入鹿 Soga no Iruka
スサノオ Susanoo (since Meiji)


The main deity is a wooden statue of a seated Iruka:

(replica of the statue)

Around the shrine are many families with the name of Soga 「蘇我」- 「曽我」.
曽我町 Soga town is close by and there is the shrine 宗我都比古神社 Sogatsuhuiko Jinja founded by
蘇我馬子 Soga no Umako, where the Soga clan is venerated.

In the Meiji period, it was thought improper to venerate a human as deity, so Susanoo was enshrined.
The name of the shrine was to be changed to 小綱神社 Koami Jinja, but due to strong protest of all the Soga around, the name IRUKA was kept.
In the compound of the shrine was also a temple, 仏起山普賢寺 Bukkizan Fugen-Ji, where 大日如来 Dainichi Nyorai is venerated. In the Meiji period, the temple was destructed, and the statue of Dainichi Nyorai given to temple 成等山正蓮寺 Shoren-Ji.



Part of the temple named 大日堂 Dainichi Do Hall with the statue remains to our day.


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蘇我蝦夷・入鹿
門脇 禎二

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


.......................................................................... Aichi 愛知県 ......................................
犬山市 Inuyama


Iruka-ike 入鹿池 Iruka Pond

ryuujin 龍神 Dragon Deity
Once the Dragon Deity of the Iruka Pond turned herself into a young woman and got married to a human.
Once a man named 福富信蔵 Fukutomi Nobuzo had a visitor every night and when their talk was over, she went to the Iruka pond, slipped in as a serpent and then became a dragon. But he could not get her as his wife.

Iruka no Sato 入鹿の里 Hometown of Iruka, at the Iruka Pond


.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県 ......................................


Soga no Iruka's Assassination.

After the beheading, the head of Iruka took off to the sky with a loud roar.
Three villages in Nara prefecture claim to be the place where his head landed.

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橿原市 Kashihara

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
When Kamatari beheaded Iruka, his head flew away, an fell down at home near the bridge 橿原市曽我の首落橋.
The house nearby was called おって屋 Otte-ya.


source : kashikoken-yushikai.org/index

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桜井市 Sakurai

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
Near the shrine 多武峰談山神社 Tanzan Jinja there is a huge rock where Iruka hid. But he was found by Kamatari and beheaded.


The head then took off with a roar. and fell down at 談上ヶ森 / 談所ヶ森 Tanjo no Mori.
On that night there was a great storm in the region.

. Tanzan Jinja 談山神社 Tanzan Shrine .
多武峯社 Tōnomine Shrine
and Fujiwara no Kamatari 藤原釜足

.......................................................................
高市郡 Takaichi district 明日香村 Asukamura

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
When Kamatari beheaded Iruka, his head flew away with a loud roar. The head then begun to pursue Kamatari, who run away, passed Tonomine and run all the way to Asukamura, to the shrine 気都和既神社 Kitsuwaki Jinja. There Kamatari thought "The head will not find me here and not come here " (ここまでくれば、もうこぬ moo kone), and sat down on a rock in the forest which is now called
moo kon no mori もうこんの森 / "もうこの森" "The forest where he will not come", Moko Grove .
The head of Iruka then took off to the border of Ise, to 高見山 Takamiyama.



鎌足の腰掛石 The Rock where Kamatari rested




気都和既神社 Kitsuwaki Jinja
Nara-ken, Takaichi-gun, Asuka-mura, Kamura, 172


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

秋の蛇蘇我入鹿の野心もて
aki no hebi Soga Iruka no yashin mote

this snake in autumn
seems to be just as ambitions as
Soga Iruka


小林貴子 Kobayashi Takako

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入鹿池半分涸れてゐて碧し
Iruka-ike hanbun karete ite midori shi

the Iruka pond
is half dried out
and still so green


神谷定女 Kamiya Teijo



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2017-02-18

Ichijo Tenno

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Ichijō-tennō, Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Emperor Ichijo
Emperor Ichijyo


- quote -
Emperor Ichijō 一条天皇 Ichijō-tennō, 
(July 15, 980 – July 25, 1011) was the 66th emperor of Japan,
according to the traditional order of succession.



Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 986 to 1011.

Before he ascended to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (imina) was Kanehito-shinnō.
Kanehito-shinnō was the first son of Emperor En'yū and Fujiwara no Senshi, a daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie. Since there are no documented siblings, it is supposed that he was an only child.
Ichijō had five Empresses or Imperial consorts and five Imperial sons and daughters.
His reign coincided with the culmination of Heian period culture and the apex of the power of the Fujiwara clan.
In 984,
he was appointed as crown prince under 花山天皇 Emperor Kazan. It was rumored contemporarily that his maternal grandfather Kaneie plotted to have Kazan retire from the throne.
Ichijō ascended the throne at the age of six.
.....
Ichijō had two empress consorts. First was Teishi (or Fujiwara no Sadako), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka, second was Shōshi (or Akiko), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, a younger brother of Michitaka. Most people thought it impossible to have two empress consorts, but Michinaga claimed that the empress held two separate titles, Chūgū and Kōgō, which were different in principle and could therefore given to two different women.
The courts of both empresses were known as centers of culture.
Sei Shōnagon, author of The Pillow Book, was a lady in waiting to Teishi. Murasaki Shikibu was a lady in waiting to Shoshi. There were other famous poets in the courts of the empresses.
Ichijō loved literature and music.
For this reason, high ranked courtiers felt the necessity for their daughter to hold cultural salons with many skillful lady poets. Particularly he was fond of the flute. Ichijō was known for his temperate character and was beloved by his subjects.
.....
Ichijō is buried amongst the "Seven Imperial Tombs" at 竜安寺 Ryoan-ji Temple in Kyoto. The mound which commemorates the Emperor Ichijō is today named 衣笠山Kinugasa-yama. The emperor's burial place would have been quite humble in the period after Ichijo died.
.....
The years of Ichijō's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.
Eien 永延 (987–988)
Eiso 永祚 (988–990)
Shōryaku 正暦 (990–995)
Chōtoku 長徳 (995–999)
Chōhō 長保 (999–1004)
Kankō 寛弘 (1004–1012)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. 瑠璃山 Rurizan 正光院 Temple Shoko-In .
港区元麻布3-2-20 / 3 Chome-2-20 Motoazabu, Minato ward, Tokyo

The main statue of this temple is
Koyasu Yakushi 子安薬師 Yakushi Nyorai to protect children

The statue was made by 恵心僧都 源信 Eshin Sozu Genshin in the middle Heian period, carved at the birth of 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno with prayers for the baby to grow up healthy. This wooden statue was lost in WWII, the present statue is a gift from Mount Koyasan.

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. Tsubosakadera 壷阪寺 .



This Temple is the sixth of 33 scared place of Kannon in the West of Japan and the principal image Juichmen Kanzeon Bosatsu (Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy) enshrined in the Temple has been extensively worshipped as the goddess marvelously responsive to eye diseases.
Emperors Gensho, Ichijo and Kanmu and man other famous historical persons prayed for the recovery from their eye diseases.


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. Kani Yakushi 蟹薬師 "Crab Yakushi" .
大寺山願興寺 Daiji San, Ganko-Ji // Mitake no Kani Yakushi 御嵩の蟹薬師

closely related to the emperor Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno, when the annual festival 蟹薬師祭礼 started.

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. Shiba Daijinguu 芝大神宮 Shiba Daijingu .

Founded in 1005, by the Emperor Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno.

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----- A legend about this Tenno:

He was maybe the first "pet lover" in documented history.


source : ntt-card.com/trace

He had a cat which he loved very much. One day a dog chased the cat, so he banned the dog for a while from his view. Even when the dog was allowed to come back, he was so afraid of his master that he did not eat a thing.
Therefore the Tenno pardoned him explicitly and took him in his lap again. The happy dog soon begun to eat again.

. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

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- quote -
Emperor Ichijo 一条天皇 (Ichijou tennou)
Emperor Ichijô was an emperor of the Heian period, perhaps most well-known as being the reigning emperor during the composition of the Tale of Genji and Murasaki nikki by Murasaki Shikibu, and of The Pillow Book by Sei Shônagon. It was in Ichijô's court that much of the events related or referenced in these works took place.
A son of Emperor En'yû,
born in the Sanjô Palace and largely raised there by his grandfather Fujiwara no Kaneie, he succeeded to the throne upon the abdication of his uncle Emperor Kazan on 986/6/23. His accession ceremony was held on 7/22 that year. Ichijô's grandfather Fujiwara no Kaneie served as sesshô (regent for an emperor in his minority) from 986 until 990, and very briefly as kanpaku (regent for an adult emperor) following Ichijô's genpuku (coming of age) that year at the age of ten. Later that same year (990), Fujiwara no Michitaka took over as regent, holding the title of sesshô until 993 and then that of kanpaku until 995. Finally, Fujiwara no Michikane served as kanpaku briefly in 995.
He took Fujiwara no Akiko, a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, as his First Empress; she came to be known as Empress Shôshi. In 1000, he promoted Fujiwara no Sadako, also known as Empress Teishi, to First Empress, demoting Shôshi to Second Empress and creating considerable factional tension within the palace. As Murasaki Shikibu served Shôshi and Sei Shônagon served Teishi, this event contributed to rivalries between the two women which appear in their writings.
Ichijô abdicated the throne on 1011/6/13
in favor of his cousin, a son of Emperor Reizei, who took the throne as Emperor Sanjô. Ichijô then formally took the tonsure and entered retirement on 6/19, but died several days later on 1011/6/22.
One of his sons would later succeed Emperor Sanjô as Emperor Go-Ichijô.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/ -

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- quote -
MUSIC AND RELIGION IN JAPAN
In the reign of the Emperor Ichijyo (r. 986–1011),
mikagura was performed in the Naishidokoro (Kashikodokoro) Palace to the accompaniment of kagurabue (a bamboo transverse flute), hichiriki (a double-reed pipe), and wagon.
- source : 2005 Thomson Gale -

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. Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .

. Murasaki Shikibu 紫式部 .

. Japanese History / The Middle Heian Period .

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一条天皇 (人物叢書) bu 倉本一宏

- Reference - 一条天皇 -

- Reference - Emperor Ichijo -
Emperor Go-Ichijō was the 68th emperor of Japan

- Reference - Emperor Ichijyo -
Abeno Seimei Shrine was reportedly built by the 66th Emperor Ichijyo in 1007.
There was a very clever girl who was a daughter of Emperor Ichijyo.
Ichijyo Modoribashi

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2016-05-24

koi carp legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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koi 鯉 と伝説 Legends about carps - Karpfen

koi, the carp  鯉 - - koi, the love 恋 - - koi, come here 来い

. The Carp in Japanese Culture - Introduction .

. Koi 鯉 carp and fish as folk toys .

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Oniwakamaru driving out a Koi fish monster - 鬼若丸の鯉退治


岩窪初五 Iwakubo Hatsugoro

igyoojin oniwakamaru 異形人おに若丸 The Monstrous Oniwakamaru
- reference : Igyoujin Oniwakamaru - Manga 漫画作品 -

Musashibo Benkei was called Oniwakamaru - "demon child, ogre child" in his youth.
His mother was pregnant for 18 months with him and when the baby was born, it has already hair and teeth.
He was so strong he could fight against 200 men and win.
Since he was such a problem, he was given to Western Part of the mountain monestery at Hieizan 比叡山西塔. At that time he was called 西塔鬼若丸 "Saito Oniwakamaru".

. Musashibo Benkei 武蔵坊弁慶 .


CLICK for more photos !
歌川国芳 Utagawa Kuniyoshi


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- quote -
Koi are a legendary fish. Graceful, vibrant, and one of the most recognizable fish in the world, koi are well-loved and respected. Often associated with Japan, koi actually originated from Central Asia in China. They were introduced to Japan by Chinese invaders.

- - - Waterfall Legend
- - - Symbolism and Meaning
Koi fish are also symbolized according to their coloration.. . .
- source : koi-fish-meaning-and-myth-

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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


.......................................................................... Gifu 岐阜県 ......................................

. Hidari Jingoroo 左甚五郎 Hidari Jingoro - master carver .
The carp at the main hall of the shrine 久津八幡宮 Kuzu Hachimangu ....


.......................................................................... Mie 三重県 ......................................
久居市 Hisai town - 榊原村 Sakakibara

hazekoi はぜ鯉 sanshouo 山椒魚 Salamander
A villager caught a huge carp, but the animal had legs and fas in fact a salamander. It is called "hazekoi". After he caught this animal, suddenly the water supply of the village became less and less. It was the curse of the Salamander.
Now people never catch any salamander and pray at the local shrine for its well-being.
And the greatful salamander now shape-shifts into real carp every year to grant them a good fishing harvest.

. sanshoouo, sanshoo uo 山椒魚 salamander .



.......................................................................... Tochigi 栃木県 ......................................
小山市 Oyama

In the year 1028 a person named 角田将監 Kakuda Shogen was hit by a huge typhoon. The big 大榎 huckberry tree in his garden had fallen down, so be begun to dig a well in this place. After a short while, clear water welled up from the ground and a huge higoi 緋鯉 golden red carp showed up. This was an auspicious sign. When the village headman 持田 Mochida went to Tokyo to report the event.
奇瑞と言って、神主の持田某と京都に上ったところ、時の天皇に禁鯉宮の勅額を賜ったうえ井戸を掘ることと鯉の合火を禁じられた。後に生活に困難を来したために禁制は解かれたが、氏子は今でも鯉を神聖視している。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
85 to explore (02)

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2016-03-16

Komuso legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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komusoo 虚無僧 伝説 Komuso legends about begging mendikant monks

. Komuso and the Shakuhachi Flute 尺八 .
- Introduction -



Isoda Koryūsai 磯田湖竜斎  (1735–1790)
Komuso and Beauties

- quote -
The komusō (虚無僧 komusō, hiragana: こむそう; also romanized komusou or komuso)
"monks of nothingness"
were a group of Japanese mendicant monks of the Fuke school of Zen Buddhism who flourished during the Edo period of 1600-1868. Komusō were characterized by a straw bascinet (a sedge or reed hood named a tengai or tengui) worn on the head, manifesting the absence of specific ego.
They were also known for playing solo pieces on the shakuhachi (a type of Japanese bamboo flute). These pieces, called honkyoku ("original pieces"), were played during a meditative practice called suizen, for alms, as a method of attaining enlightenment, and as a healing modality. The Japanese government introduced reforms after the Edo period, abolishing the Fuke sect. Records of the musical repertoire survived, and are being revived in the 21st century.



They wore a straw basket (tengai 天蓋) that covered their head as they played. Because some of these komuso were in fact spies for the government,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. どんころ独楽 Donkoro spinning top for gambling .
with a Komuso image on one side

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Komuso Dolls - click for more !

mamako no utae 継子の訴え complaint of a stepchild
While the father had to go on a trip, his two children were killed by the stepmother. A Komuso buried the two children, made a Shakuhachi from the bamboo near the grave and blew it. The sound reached the ears of the father and he returned as fast as he could. He recovered the bodies from the grave and put the stepmother to trial and punishment.
This is the origin of the Shakuhachi melody called
「継子と笛」「継子と鳥」.
- reference : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/therinmeis1979 -


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shakuhachihebi 尺八蛇 Shakuhachi Serpent
tsuchi no hebi 槌の蛇 "hammer snake"


source : nazo108.sblo.jp/article

. nozuchi 野槌 tsuchinoko ツチノコ / 槌の子 "hammerspawn" snake .
- Introduction -

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source and more komuso monsters : togetter.com/li

お猪口が變化した小さな虚無僧のような姿をした妖怪
little Toad monster wearing a 猪口 Sake cup as Komuso hat.

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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures - Komuso and Shakuhachi legends:

........................................................... Kagawa 香川県 .............................................................

yumemi 夢見 seeing a dream
Once a man was on the pilgrimage to Konpira san in Shikoku 金毘羅参り. On the way he saw a bamboo shoot coming out and growing big right in front of his eyes. So he cut the bamboo and made a Shakuhachi out of it. When he blew it, the melody sounded like:

笛も太鼓もいらんぞ、ととさま恋しや
I need no flute or drum, I long for my daddy!


When the man returned home - - - you know the tragic end from the story above.
Therefore in Kagawa it is a bad omen to see a large bamboo shoot in a dream.

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source : geocities.jp/shaku8tm/komusou

虚無僧人形 hand-made bamboo dolls - click for more !



........................................................... Kochi 高知県 .............................................................
安芸郡和食村 Aki district / Tosa 土佐

warai onna 笑い女 the laughing woman
In the hamlet of Wajiki there lived a man deep in the mountains and blew his Shakuhachi every night in front of his hut. One day a beautiful woman came up and asked him to play the Shakuhachi for her. She said her name was "Laughing Woman".
The man smiled and told her he would play a tune to make her laugh.
Her laugh became louder and louder as he blew his Shakuhachi and was heard all over the mountain.
Now the man became angry and trew his ax and hammer at her, but the woman just picked them up and ate them with good appetite.
When the man did not know what to do any more now, suddenly the sound of a rooster came up from the valley and the "Laughing Woman" disappeared.
But the voice of the rooster did not come from an animal, but from an amulet that was hanging at the breast of the man to protect him.
This is a dangerous Yokai, because if you begin to laugh with her, you will be eaten by her.

. warai onna 笑い女 the laughing woman .
and more about 土佐の妖怪 Yokai Monsters from Tosa



........................................................... Kumamoto 熊本県 .............................................................

kani no hi 蟹の火 the light of a crab
Once a Komuso walked in the mountains, when a green-whitish light came nearer. The Komuso questioned it and found out it was a malicious crab. So he hit the crab with his Shakuhachi and killed it.
This is why the local crabs (gazami ガザミ) in the Amakusa region 天草地方 to our day have a scar on the back of their shell.


source : amakoma.sakura.ne.jp/diary

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The sad story of the stepchildren is also told. In this version, the father was visiting Kyoto.
The stepmother killed the children by boiling them in a huge chauldron.


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Komuso Kappa 虚無僧河童


- at yahoo auctions -

. 河童 / かっぱ / カッパ - Kappa, the Water Goblin of Japan! .



........................................................... Kyoto 京都府 .............................................................

kosha 瞽者 a blind person
A blind man named Joomatsu 城松 Jomatsu had very keen ears and was quite skillful in playing the Shakuhachi. When he played toward a waterfall, the sound of the waterfall was not heard any more. One day in the early Edo period, in the morning suddenly there was a stange sound of wind and waves when he played.
And that evening, a strong earthquake hit the region.


........................................................... Osaka 大阪 .............................................................

yookai 妖怪 monster
In the year 1774 in October every day there walked a Samurai from Osaka in the area of Mount Sanadayama 真田山. Many could hear him but not see him. Once a Komuso and a villager walked together and the villager realized that the Komuso was in fact a Yokai monster. So he decided to kill him but could not see him any more. He must have fled in fear.


........................................................... Tochigi 栃木県 .............................................................
宇都宮市 Utsunomiya

daija 大蛇 large serpent
In the beginning of the Meiji period there lived a craftsman who made Chinese lutes (gekkin 月琴). He used the skin of serpents to cover the body.
One evening he was sitting in front of his shop, playing the Shakuhachi. He saw a large serpent coming down the hill and winding itself around his flute. The man soon killed the serpent, but he became ill and died soon afterwards.


........................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県 .............................................................

somabito 杣人 forest worker
When the forest workers go to the mountain forest for work, they take along a person skilled in Shakuhachi playing. They start after he has performed one melody.
This is because the 天狗 Tengu, who is the 山の神 "Deity of the Mountain", liked to hear Shakuhachi.


source : fuwaiin.com/kenendou/hougaku - 正和会

尺八合同競演会(天狗会)


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース - 虚無僧



source : jxkura007.exblog.jp - 尺八 よもやま話

kooun ryuusui 行雲流水 "wandering monk", Unsui
"To drift like clouds and flow like water"

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虚無僧の二人つれだつ雲の峰
komusoo no futaritsuredatsu kumo no mine

two Komuso
wandering along -
billowing clouds


Izumi Kyooka 泉鏡花 Izumi Kyoka


. kumo no mine 雲の峰 billowing clouds .
kigo for summer

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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