2019-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .


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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2019-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, the oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


. Legends and tales 伝説 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


. Asuka Kiyomihara Palace 飛鳥 清見原 .

auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise


. Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war - 672 .
Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno


. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

kinri 禁裏 / 禁中 / 御所 living quarters of the emperor
- kinri sama 禁裏様 Emperor

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. “Time in Medieval Japan” - symposium 2018 .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

. Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka .
and - Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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2018-10-21

typhus legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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chifusu to densetsu チフスと伝説 Legends about typhus
chifusu チフス typhus // parachifusu 腸チフス - パラチフス typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever



- quote -
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include
epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash. Typically these begin one to two weeks after exposure.
The diseases are caused by specific types of bacterial infection.
Epidemic typhus is due to Rickettsia prowazekii spread by body lice, scrub typhus is due to Orientia tsutsugamushi spread by chiggers, and murine typhus is due to Rickettsia typhi spread by fleas.
..... Scrub typhus occurs in Southeast Asia, Japan, and northern Australia.
..... Typhus has been described since at least 1528 AD. The name comes from the Greek tûphos (τύφος) meaning hazy, describing the state of mind of those infected. While "typhoid" means "typhus-like", typhus and typhoid fever are distinct diseases caused by different types of bacteria.
----- Signs and symptoms begin with sudden onset of fever, and other flu-like symptoms about one to two weeks after being infected. Five to nine days after the symptoms have started, a rash typically begins on the trunk and spreads to the extremities. This rash eventually spreads over most of the body, sparing the face, palms, and soles. Signs of meningoencephalitis begin with the rash and continue into the second or third weeks. Other signs of meningoencephalitis include sensitivity to light (photophobia), altered mental status (delirium), or coma. Untreated cases are often fatal.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


............................................................................... Fukushima 福島県

zokushin 俗信 folk belief
福島に伝わる俗信。馬の骨の黒焼きは、熱冷ましに良く、腸チフスの際に内服するという。また、黒焼きにしない馬の骨は煎じて飲むといいという。頭痛の時は、塩で胡瓜の葉をもんで額につけるという。火傷には味噌あるいはジャガイモをすり下ろしたものをつけるという。風邪引きの初期には、味噌とネギの白根を細かく刻んだものを混ぜて熱湯を注いだものを服用し、発汗をするという。墨汁を縫い針の糸ににじませ、これを肉刺に通して中の水液を出すという、など。


............................................................................... Iwate 岩手県
.......................................................................
大船渡市 Ofunato city 三陸町 Sanriku town

boorei 亡霊 ghost
Once the master of the house had died of typhus. His son carried the remains of his father to the second floor of the barn and left it there.
The next evening, the ghost of his father appeared, only visible to the son. So the son called a priest and had proper rituals performed. After that he did not see the ghost of his father again.




............................................................................... Kagoshima 鹿児島県
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西之表市 Nishinoomote city

wakamiya sama 若宮様
大正13年にこの部落に腸チフスが流行った。ものの祟りではないかと考えた住民は、東海岸の浅川部落のモノシリ(巫女)に見て貰った。すると、弓を引き殺される様子を演じ、畠の中で朽ちている若宮様を粗末にするからだと言う。若宮様とは志布志の殿様の子息であったが、所領問題により川迎で弓引きの際に謀殺されたものであるといわれる。それから若宮様を氏神様の参道に移して部落で祀るようになった。




............................................................................... Nagano 長野県

tatari 祟り,moriki 杜樹
峠の山の神といわれる吉田山がある。その社樹を伐採して、公会堂を建立した。その直後から腸チフスが蔓延して、多くの死者が出た。これは峠の山の神の祟りだとしてお祓いをしてもらった。



............................................................................... Niigata 新潟県
.......................................................................
佐渡市 Sado city 畑野町

ta-asobi 田遊び
畑野町大久保の田遊神事を村の外部に持ち出したのは、昭和初期に同じ畑野町後山の学校で演じたのが最初であった。しかしその年に大久保では不作であったり腸チフスが流行ったりと色々と問題が起こった。



............................................................................... Okayama 岡山県
.......................................................................真庭郡 Maniwa district 落合町 Ochiai town

Zenkaku Inari Shrine 善覚稲荷
Once there was a typhus epidemic in the town, so people went to the Shrine Zenkaku Inaru to pray for healing.



In former times the Shrine was called 善覚神社 Zenkaku Jinja.
古くは社号を「善覚神社」と申し上げていた神社で、昔 小山善覚坊という修験者がおり、この善覚坊が伏見稲荷から勧請した稲荷神を拝み、霊感を使ってましたが、神の力が強くなり過ぎ、善覚坊の力では抑えきれなくなり、現在の奥宮と木山寺の間に社を建てて祀ったのが「善覚神社」の始まりと言われています。

御祭神は倉稲魂命(うかのみたまのみこと)を始め、赤衾衣奴大住日子佐別命(あかぶすまいぬおおすみひこさわけのみこと)また、合祀した木山八幡神社の神や稲作に関わる神々五柱、猿田彦神など、計九柱の神々を祭神としています。

木山神社と同様に、善覚稲荷神社の霊験のたかさも古来より有名で、江戸末期から明治にかけて県内各地に善覚稲荷の信仰は広がっていきました。

岡山県真庭市木山1265-1
HP of the shrine
- reference source : kiyamajinjya.sakura.ne.jp... -

Kiyamadera 木山寺 Kiyama Temple


.......................................................................
新見市 Niimi city 哲西町

コウジン(荒神)もさわることがあり、西谷の大きなマキの木を伐ってからチフスがはやったのは、コウジンの祟りだといわれた。
.
マリシテンのさわり Marishiten
生木中がチフスを患ったことがあるが、これはマリシテンがさわったためともいわれている。




............................................................................... Shimane 島根県
shookan 傷寒(チフス)Shokan, local name for typhus
kaze 傷寒(かぜ)

傷寒(チフス)は傷寒という坊主が乗り移って人を悩ますものを信じられていた。
.......................................................................

shiroi mono 白い物 something white
終戦後、寺での供養に部落の門徒がお参りをした際、見知らぬ男がお斎についていた。部落の者だと名のるので不思議に思っていると、ある家の男が、父親が死んでから1回も法事をしてやっていないので、斎につきに出たのかもしれないと言った。その人は30年以上前の大正5年、腸チフス流行時に真っ先に亡くなった人だった。




............................................................................... Tokyo Arakawa 荒川区

Once the younger sister of 新井つね Arai Tsune had typhus. In her dream she saw a priest in red robes who told her:
"If you go in this direction, you will die."
As the woman lie in high fever, she heard the voice of her crying baby and came back to her senses. Gradually she healed completely.


............................................................................... Toyama 富山県
.......................................................................
礪波市 Tonami city
saen サエゾ(腸チフス)local name for typhus

saenboo サエゾボン
サエゾボンとはサエゾ(腸チフス)を追い払うボン(坊さん)のことである。

..............................................................................................................................................


- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -


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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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2018-10-20

Edo Tokyo Legends Index

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Edo, Tokyo 江戸 - 東京 - と伝説 Legends

The special wards covered here are:
Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Kōtō Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Taitō Toshima



. Introduction .
. 江戸 Edo - 妖怪 Yokai monsters, 幽霊 Yurei ghosts .
. Edo Nana Fushigi 江戸七不思議 The Seven Wonders of Edo .



- collecting -
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. Adachi ku 足立区 Adachi ward .

. Arakawa ku 荒川区 Arakawa ward - "wild river" .

. Bunkyoo ku, Bunkyō 文京区 Bunkyo ward - "Literature Capital" .

. Chiyoda ku 千代田区 Chiyoda ward - "Fields of Eternity" .

. Chuuoo ku, Chūō 中央区 Chuo Ward - "Central Ward" .

. Edogawa ku 江戸川区 Edogawa ward .

. Itabashi ku 板橋区 Itabashi ward - "plank bridge" .

. Katsushika ku 葛飾区 Katsushika ward - "decorated with kuzu 葛 arrowroot " .

. Kita ku 北区 Kita ward - "Northern Ward" .

. Kootoo ku, Kōtō 江東区 Koto ward - "East River" .

. Meguro ku 目黒区 Meguro ward - "black eye Fudo " .

. Minato ku 港区 Minato ward - "Harbour ward" .

. Nakano ku 中野区 Nakano ward - "Middle Wild Field" .

. Nerima ku 練馬区 Nerima ward - "horse training" .

. Oota ku, Ōta 大田区 Ota ward - "big field" .

. Setagaya ku 世田谷区 Setagaya ward .

. Shibuya ku 渋谷区 Shibuya ward - "astringent valley" .

. Shinagawa ku 品川区 Shinagawa - "goods river" .

. Shinjuku ku 新宿区 Shinjuku Ward .

. Suginami ku 杉並区 Suginami ward - "avenue of cedar trees" .

. Sumida ku 墨田区 Sumida ward, "ink field" .

. Taitoo ku, Taitō 台東区 Taito Ward .

. Toshima ku 豊島区 Toshima ward - "Rich Island" .


. Musashi no Kuni 武蔵国 Musashi Province .
and the 22 counties of Musashi Province
豊島 Toshima, 荏原 Ebara, 橘樹 Tachibana, 久良岐 Kuraki, 都筑 Tsuzuki, 多摩 Tama, 足立 Adachi, 入間 Iruma, 比企 Hiki, 横見 Yokomi, 埼玉 Saitama, 大里 Ohsato, 男衾 Obusuma, 幡羅 Hara, 榛沢 Hanzawa, 那賀 Naka, 児玉 Kodama, 賀美 Kami and 秩父 Chichibu.




::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



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2018-10-14

hitodama human soul legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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hitodama 人魂 / 人玉と伝説 Legends about the human soul
hitodama 人玉 spirit of a dead person, "soul flame"
tamabi 魂火 soul fire, fireball of a soul, human fireball




- quote -
In Japanese folklore, Hitodama (Japanese 人魂; meaning "human soul") are balls of fire that mainly float in the middle of night.
They are said to be "souls of the dead that have separated from their bodies," which is where their name comes from.
- Hitodama are mentioned in literature from ancient times. In the Man'yōshū, there is the following poem:
When you are alone and meet the complete blueness of a hitodama,
you would naturally think of it as the sorrow on a rainy night.

— Man'yōshū (Amasaki book) Chapter 16

They are frequently confused with onibi and kitsunebi, but since hitodama are considered to be the "appearance of souls that have left the body and fly through the air," they are strictly speaking a different general idea.
Concerning their shape and nature,
there are common features throughout Japan, but some differences could also be seen depending on the area. They fly crawling along at an elevation that is not very high. They have a color that is blue, orange, or red, and also have a tail, but it can either be short or long. There are also a few that have been seen during daytime.
In the Okinawa Prefecture,
hitodama are called "tamagai", and in Nakijin, they are said to appear before a child is born and in some areas are also said to be mysterious flames that drive off humans to death.
In Kawakami, Inba District, Chiba Prefecture,
(now Yachimata), hitodama are called "tamase," and are said to come out of the body 2 or 3 days after a human dies, and go toward temples or people they have a deep relation with and are said to make a great sound in storm shutters and gardens, but it is said that this sound can only be heard by those who have a deep relation with the spirit. Also, for those who have not seen a tamase by the time they are 28 years of age, a tamase would come towards them saying "let's meet, let's meet (aimashou, aimashou)" so even those who have not seen one when they are 28 years old will pretend to have seen one.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !





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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


............................................................................... Fukui 福井県
敦賀市 Tsuruga

. ryuutoo 龍燈 / 龍灯 / 竜灯 と伝説 Legends about Ryuto, "Dragon Lantern" .
tamabi 魂火 soul fire
On the last day of the Old Year people can see many soul fires hovering over the waves in the sea. Sometimes there are more soul fires on the other side of the bay, sometimes they come together and over around. Eventually they disappear at the Shrine 常宮神社 Jogu Jinja.
The Dragon, an incarnation of 海神 Watatsumi, the Deity of the Sea, is said to become a female and go to meet its male counterpart.




............................................................................... Ibaraki 茨城県

.......................................................................
茨城町 Ibaraki Town

tamase, hitodama 人玉 / 人魂
A bluish-white fireball 火の玉 fell down to the ground near a Zelkova tree.
The local folks called this tamase タマセ(魂) (tamashi) a soul.

. keyaki 欅と伝説 Legends about the Zelkova tree .




............................................................................... Kagoshima
屋久島 Yakushima island

. hitodama 人玉 spirit of a dead person, "soul flame" .





............................................................................... Nara 奈良県

tamabi 魂火 soul fire

If there is a death in the family, another blood relative will be sure to see the Tamabi leave the house.




............................................................................... Tokyo 東京
Ota ward

. Tales from temple 本門寺 Honmon-Ji .



..............................................................................................................................................


- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
197 人魂 to explore
23 人玉 to explore
tamabi 魂火 OK

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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- - - - - #hitodama #soulfire #humansoul -
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2018-10-13

kitoshi shaman legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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kitooshi, kitōshi 祈祷師と伝説 Kitoshi, Legends about Shamans


江戸時代の祈とう師 Kitoshi exorcist in the Edo period

- - - - - kitooshi can be translated in many ways:
Shaman, exorcist, faith healer, spirit medium, diviner, spiritual healer

. yorigitoo 憑祈祷 / 憑り祈祷 exorcistic 祈祷 Kito rituals .
The act of communicating or channeling spirits in special rituals.

..............................................................................................................................................

- quote -
Kitō are magico-religious invocations of the powers of a wide range of Shintō and Buddhist deities in hope of divine favor or protection. The ritual is also referred to as kinen, kigan, or kisei ; it also shares the same meaning as inori and nomi.
In ancient times, invocations and offerings were made to shrines to request safety, good weather, and bountiful harvests throughout the realm. Invocations of such highly public nature formed the original purpose of Shintō worship.
On the other hand, invocations made for the private benefit of individuals (shikitō and shikigan) are thought to have derived from "yin-yang exorcism" (onmyō harai) rites by ying-yang diviners (onmyōji ) in the mid-Heian period.
The integration of such rituals into the Shintō faith in the late Heian period has been attributed to the activities of invocation ritualists (okitōshi, o-kitōshi), who are precursors of the medieval oshi. Moreover, influenced by the practice of reaching empowerment through ritual union with the deity (kajikitō) of esoteric Buddhism and by yin-yang exorcism rites, Yoshida Shintō adapted the esoteric Buddhist goma rite and created the "Shintō goma", the "elemental Shinto ceremony" (sōgen gyōji), and a wide variety of other prayer rituals.
At present, shrine priests (shinshoku) conduct shikitō and shikigan invocations for diverse aims, such as easy childbirth, recovery from illness, longevity, and the prosperity of descendants.
Invocation rituals that are personally performed by individuals, without the intervention of shinshoku, are popular, including the "100 pilgrimages" (hyakudo mōde; see ohyakudo), the "1,000 shrine pilgrimage" (senja mōde, see also senja fuda), and "temporary seclusion at a shrine for making an invocation" (sanrō ).
- source : Shimazu Norifumi, Kokugakuin 2007 -


..............................................................................................................................................


. kitoo 祈祷 is often translated as "prayer" .
and some kigo for Haiku are related to it.
In Japan, official prayers at shrines or temples are often accompanied by ritual dance and other ceremonies.
kitoo-gitsune 祈祷狐 prayer to the Inari Fox deity (kitsune)
kitsune mai 狐舞 fox dance
inariyama no shirogitsune 稲荷山の白狐 the white fox from Inari mountain

..............................................................................................................................................

. Yamanokami and Shaman legends .
- a long list

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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

............................................................................... Okayama 岡山県
.......................................................................
北房町 Hokubo

kishiojin キシオジン / キシオヂン / きしおじん Kishio-Jin, Kishibojin
Once on the day of 庚申 Koshin the child of a certain family did not come home at night. Three days (months) later they found some of her cloths and some hair at an old temple near 古坊 Furubo. They showed them to カンパラ(祈祷師), Ganbara, a diviner at Soja. He found that キシオジン Kishiojin (the name of the deity in the local dialect) had taken her away.
The house of her family was built along a road where the Tengu pass.
(Other sources say a キシオジンの通り筋 road where Kishiojin passes.)
Also called Kishiojin-suji キシオジン筋.




............................................................................... Nagano 長野県
.......................................................................
飯島町 Iijima

kuda くだ Kuda (Yokai fox-like animal)
Kuda, a green bamboo tube where cooked rice is kept. When people hit it, the KUDA comes out and the family where this happens will become rich and have a lot of silk worms.
A home with many KUDA is blessed, but if there are too much, they will eat too much and eventually the family will become poor and its members become ill.
So the family has to call for an exorcist 祈祷師, a Shinto priest, and have rituals performed.
. kudagitsune 管狐 Fox Kuda Yokai, living in bamboo tubes .


.......................................................................
下伊那郡 Shimo-Ina district 辰野町 Tatsuno

. Yamanokami is also called "Kitoshi" .
祈とう師を山の神と呼ぶ



............................................................................... Nagasaki
.......................................................................

. Gaappa ガーッパ The Kappa of Nagasaki 長崎県 .
In some very rural areas there are some kind of 祈祷師 exorcists for the Kappa, Gaappa, ガーッパおとしの神さん Gaappa otoshi no kami san. They can remove a Gaappa if he possesses a human by beating the Shaman drum, swinging the ritual wand 御幣 and chanting exorcist Sutras.





............................................................................... Oita 大分県
.......................................................................
佐伯市 Saiki town

. Inugami 犬神 "Dog Deity" .


..............................................................................................................................................


- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
134 祈祷師 to explore
373 祈とう師 to collect

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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- - - - - #kitooshi #kitoshi #shaman #diviner #exorcist -
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2018-10-12

Fujisan Mount Fuji Legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Fujisan, Fujiyama 富士山 と伝説 Legends about Mount Fuji


June 22, 2013

Fuji, Mt. Fuji, Fujiyama, Fujisan
Mount Fuji and Haiku

. Food Specialities from Mount Fujisan .
- Introduction -




::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

............................................................................... Tokyo / Edo
.......................................................................
文京区 Bunkyo ward

. Hongo district 本郷 .


Fuji Gongen 富士権現 Fuji Gongen Deity
There was a shrine for Fuji Gongen in Hongo, but about 100 ago it was relocated to 駒込 Komagome. There was a small mountain, looking similar to Mount Fujisan, with some large trees.
On the first day of a certain sixth lunar month, it was suddenly snowing, which looked like blossoms on the branches. The villager nearby had a divine inspiration telling him that Fuji Gongen wants to go back to his original place in Hongo. So they relocated the shrine again.

- quote -
Fuji shinkō -
Beliefs and practices associated with Mt Fuji, Japan's highest mountain (3776 m.)
... Matsudai Shōnin
... A temple complex was also established at Murayama, at the foot of the mountain. Eventually Matsudai attained buddhahood while still alive and was worshipped as Daitōryō Gongen.
... Three shugen temples in Murayama, Tsujinobō, Chiseibō, and Daikyōbō, wielded great influence as Honzanha sendatsu and as the supervisors (bettō) of Sengen Jinja, Dainichidō and Daitōryō Gongen, respectively.
- source : Suzuki Masataka, Kokugakuin 2006 -


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
富士山 64 to explore (01)
八ヶ岳,富士山 / 金北山,富士山 / びわ湖の土,富士山,三上山 / ダイラボウ (ダイダラボッチ) , , ,

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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2018-09-08

hibashira pillar of fire flames legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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hibashira 火柱と伝説 Legends about a pillar of fire



The pillars of fire of this fire festival are more than 5 meters high.
tezutsu hanabi 手筒花火 handheld firework in Aichi

- quote -
Tezutsu hand-held fireworks - Toyohashi
Spectacular fireworks having a tradition of more than 400 years are set off at festivals held in various places of the city.
It is said that the fireworks began in the Sengoku period. Because the Mikawa region was the home ground of Ieyasu Tokugawa, regulations on manufacturing and storing gunpowder were not so strict compared to other clans and the fireworks technology developed.
Pillars of fire shoot up as high as 10 meters from the cylinders held by the hanabishu and the scene of sparks scattering and dropping like rain is fantastic. The fireworks can be seen at "Toyohashi Gion Festival" in mid July, "Fire Festival" in early September, and "Hada Festival" in early October.
- source : japan-highlightstravel.com... -


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

............................................................................... Aichi 愛知県
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知多郡 Chita district 南知多町 Minami-Chita

The pillar of flames of the festival for Yamanokami is sacred and people take it home in the hope it will prevent their house from fire.
If sparks of this fire fall on dried leaves or branches, they will not burn.
If from the top of the mountain the flames of the fire at 伊勢の神島 Kami Island of Ise can be seen, the year will bring a good harvest and bountiful fishing.



............................................................................... Iwate 岩手県
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紫波郡 Shiwa district 矢巾町 Yahaba

. hikigaeru 蝦蟇 toad .


............................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県
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登米郡 Tome district

. Yamanokami 山の神 festival . .


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
67 to explore (03)

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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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