2018-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .


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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2018-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


. Asuka Kiyomihara Palace 飛鳥 清見原 .

auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise


. Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war - 672 .
Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno


. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. “Time in Medieval Japan” - symposium 2018 .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

. Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka .
and - Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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2018-09-03

hyakunichizeki whooping cough legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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hyakunichizeki 百日咳/ 百日せき と伝説 Legends about whooping cough, pertussis
Keuchhusten



鹿嶋神社 Kashima Jinja
(御穂鹿嶋神社 Miho Kashima Jinja) 東京都港区芝4-15-1 / Tokyo Minato ward Shiba
The deity venerated in this Shrine is supposed to cure whooping cough.

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. The Legend of the Dragon God at Minuma 見沼 .
In a corner of the compound is a small shrine where the villagers pray to the Dragon God of the area for good harvest. Prayers also heal some coughing illness and when people are healed, they bring a rice ladle to the shrine as a thank you present.
Amanuma Jinja 天沼神社があり百日咳に霊験があるといわれ


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


............................................................................... Tokyo 東京
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墨田区 Sumida ward

. How to cure whooping cough .

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
20 百日咳 to explore (01)

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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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- - - - - #whoopingcough #keuchhusten #hyakunichizeki #seki -
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2018-09-02

kane, tsurigane temple bell legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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kane 鐘と伝説 Legends about the temple bell

. kane 鐘 temple bell .
- Introduction -
hanging temple bell, tsurigane 釣鐘
"crocodile's mouth", waniguchi 鰐口
bronze bell, dootaku 銅鐸
small bell, suzu 鈴


庄田耕峰 Shoda Koho (1871-1946)





. Anchin and Kiyohime 安珍・清姫伝説 .
at the temple 道成寺 Temple Dojo-Ji


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............................ waniguchi 鰐口 temple gong ............................


A Waniguchi gong hangs in front of the entrance to the temple hall and visitors may strike it before throwing their money into the box for offerings and then making their prayer/wish.

. wani わに(鰐) shark, (this means also "crocodile") .
There are no crocodiles in Japan.

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Aomori 青森県 上北郡 Kamikita district 六ヶ所村 Rokkasho

Wanigudhi Jinja 鰐口神社 Waniguchi Shrine
内沼鰐口大明神神社 Uchinuma, Waniguchi Daimyojin Jinja


Once upon a time, two pious sisters wanted to visit their father and had to cross a dangerous swamp. There appeared a lage wani 鰐 shark and lay down so they could walk over its back. This is the origin of Waniguchi Jinja.

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Wanigudhi Jinja 鰐口神社 Waniguchi Shrine
新潟県長岡市寺泊鰐口30 Niigata, Nagaoka city, Teradomari, Waniguchi 30



Located on a small hill surrounded by trees in the middle of the fields.
Its former name was 諏訪神社 Suwa Jinja.
The deity in residence is 健御名方命 Takeminakata no Mikoto = Suwa Myōjin 諏訪明神.
The date of construction is not known.
In 1908 the Shrine was united with the 道祖神社 Dosojinja of 鰐口村 Waniguchi village and the name changed to Waniguchi Jinja.

- - - - - Link with more photos :
- reference source : niigata-u.com/files ... -

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Nagano 長野県 飯田市 Iida city.
There is a Waniguchi gong at 迦楼塔 the tower of Garuda. When it gets lost it is soon found again.
One of the seven wonders of Iida city.



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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :



............................................................................... Saitama
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Chichibu 小鹿野町 Ogano

Once upon a time
the village temple went out of business and the 釣り鐘 temple bell was given to the pawn shop. It was sold to another village, where soon a fire started. The local fortune teller said it was the temple bell bringing bad luck, so it was given back. This legend is called
Tengu-sama no tsurigane 天狗様の釣り鐘 the Temple bell of the Tengu.

. Tengu legends from Chichibu .


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tsurigane 釣り鐘
Once the priest of a temple was in need of money and brought its temple bell 釣り鐘 to the pawn shop. At the town where it was re-sold there was a fire and nobody new why. A fortune-teller found the reason: The temple bell wanted to go back to its temple and hat caused fire to bring attention to itself.



............................................................................... Shizuoka 静岡県
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. The Immortal from 菊川村 Kikugawa .
and Muken no Kane 無間の鐘 "Unlimited Bell", "Soundless Bell", "the Bell of Muken"


............................................................................... 山形県 Yamagata
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鶴岡市 Tsuruoka

tsurigane 釣鐘 hanging temple bell
In the beginning of the Meiji period they wanted to build a school. To pay for it the hanging bell and the Hokyointo of the temple were sold.
Now if there is a strong wind the school building is swaying. Once during a celebration at the school the wind blew off the roof . . .
The elders of the town only laugh at this . . . after all, the hanging temple bell had been sold . .




............................................................................... Tokyo 東京
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町田市 Machida

. chinshoo 沈鐘 the fallen temple bell .
three legends !

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
227 鐘 to explore
hanging temple bell, tsurigane 釣鐘
- source : 4 legends : tsurigane 釣鐘 -
small bell, suzu 鈴
- source : 206 legends : suzu 鈴 -

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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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- - - - - #kane #tsurigane #templebell #bell #suzu #waniguchi -
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2018-09-01

neko cat legends Katzen

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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neko 猫 / ねこ と伝説 Legends about cats, Katzen


source : Matt on facebook
Toriyama Sekien 鳥山石燕

. bakeneko, bake-neko 化け猫, 化猫 monster cat .
nekomata 猫又, 猫叉, or 猫股 "forked cat"


. yamaneko 山猫 "mountain cat" .
carved by 左甚五郎 Hidari Jingoro


. neko the cat and haiku 俳句 .


- photo : Japan Lovers, facebook -


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


............................................................................... Nagano 長野県
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上水内郡 Kami-Minochi district 信濃町 Shinano town

. Cats can take possession of humans .


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
73 猫 to explore (00)
527 ネコ (00)
25 山猫 (00)

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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2018-08-20

Time in Medieval Japan

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. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period .
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“Time in Medieval Japan”


- quote -
Report on the International Time Studies Symposium 2018 “Time in Medieval Japan”
held August 1-3, 2018 at Yamaguchi University

by Migita Hiroki (Yamaguchi University); English translation and additional reporting on the comments and discussion by Raji C. Steineck (University of Zurich)

From August 1 to August 3, 2018, University of Zurich’s Chair of Japanology (supported by the Advanced Grant TIMEJ from the European Research Council) and the Research Institute for Time Studies at Yamaguchi University, in collaboration with the Japanese Society for Time studies held the International Time Studies Symposium 2018 “Time in Medieval Japan”. The symposium had the aim to explore the ways time was expressed, perceived, and experienced in medieval Japanese society from various angles. It brought together 25 researchers from the fields of intellectual and political history, literature, and religion of Japan hailing from various Japanese universities as well as from the United States and Europe for three days of presentations and extensive discussion. The program comprised papers and comments by designated specialists in the following seven fields: “calendars”, “military strategy”, “literature of the court and the warrior elite”, “village life”, “religion”, “the human body” and “markets”. Profs. Morino Masahiro, Morishita Tōru (both Yamaguchi University) and Hosoi Hiroshi (Kassui Women’s University) served as coordinators on the Japanese and Raji C. Steineck and his team at University of Zurich as coordinators on the European side.

The first conference day on August 1 started with formal greetings by Profs. Fujisawa Kenta (Director, Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University) and Raji C. Steineck (University of Zurich, PI of the ERC Advanced Grant Project “Time in Medieval Japan” / TIMEJ). The morning sessions were dedicated to the subject areas “calendar” and “military strategy”, with Prof. Franz Emde (Yamaguchi University) serving as designated commentator. The first paper titled “The Study of Time and Calendars in Medieval Japan”, by Prof. Hosoi Hiroshi started from a thorough review of research on calendars and annotated calendars (guchūreki 具注暦) and proceeded to demonstrate, based mostly on the Hoki naiden 『簠簋内伝』, the importance of these documents to understand the regional distribution and differentiation of time consciousness. Next, Prof. Kristina Buhrman of Florida State University in her presentation “An Investigation into Day-Selection for Military Actions in Medieval Japan” explained by way of a close scrutiny of the sources that the ancient court’s culture of day selection according to the annotated calendars was probably received and continued by medieval warrior aristocrats in their planning of military exploits. Dr. Ueno Taisuke (Kanda University of Foreign Languages) discussed medieval books on strategy and what they reveal about changes in time consciousness over time. He showed that while earlier sources assume that the time of actual battle belongs entirely to the gods, later sources insert elements of human discretion and manipulation into the conception of the time of battle. The ensuing comments and discussion followed up on the main points of each paper and highlighted points such as the issue of human agency, or the apparent absence of quantitative calculation of time in medieval discussions of military strategy.

In the afternoon sessions,the subject moved to time in the literature of the court and the warrior aristocracy. In the first presentation, Prof. Morino Masahiro used the example of expressions pertaining to the call of the hototogisu 郭公/時鳥 (cuckoo) in the literature of court ladies to demonstrate how their expression of time was structured by the Kokinshū 『古今集』, and how, by the same token, the geographic aspect of the territorial boundaries of royal power strongly informed the temporality of the intratextual world in these documents. Dr. Simone Müller (University of Zurich) compared the late Heian Higashiyama gobunko bon Nittchū gyōji 東山御文庫本『日中行事』with a document of the same title written at the court of Go-Daigo (r. 1318-1339), in order to put into relief the chronography and units of time employed to regulate (at least in principle) life at court in the late Kamakura period in conjunction with questions of space and power. Alexandra Ciorciaro’s (PhD student, University of Zurich) paper on “Chronography in the official records of the Kamakura bakufu” presented a detailed analysis of the systems of temporal notation used in the Kenji sannen ki 『建治三丁丑年日記』and Buke nendai ki 『武家年代記』, highlighting not only quantitative, chronometric aspects, but also expressions pertaining to the properties of certain times, or their causal interconnections. Prof. Koyama Emi (Kyoto Institute of Technology) commented on each paper from the perspective of her own research into the illumination of ancient and medieval architecture and the ways it affected daily and nightly activities.

The second day of the symposium started with Prof. Migita Hiroki’s (Yamaguchi University) presentation on “Night-time Labor by Pre-Modern Japanese Villagers”, in which he highlighted the fact that in pre-modern time, night-time labor was often embedded in ritual and play, and performed by groups of lower status. For some of these groups, movement was restricted during the day, but conversely, while “normal” members of society were largely confined in their movements at night-time, these groups could move about freely at night. To this, Prof. Tsuji Shōji (Hoken Iryō Keiei Daigaku) responded that these findings must be seen in the light of more general and constant aspects of Japanese village life. Pointing to the necessity of regular night-time work such as protecting the fields or going fishing, which was not allocated to specific status groups, he warned against over-emphasizing exotic aspects of earlier epochs of Japanese history.

The following section on religion was opened by Prof. Yuasa Yoshimi (Saitama Gakuen University), who by way of a detailed comparative analysis of chronometrical expressions in the Buddhist sources contained in the Kamakura ibun 『鎌倉遺文』corpus demonstrated that monasteries, while sharing a certain amount of standard chronography, often had specific styles of temporal regulation and chronometric expression.

The next paper by Prof. Yorizumi Mitsuko (Tokyo University) dealt with the concept of time in Dōgen’s Shōbōgenzō Uji 『正法眼蔵』「有時」. Prof. Yorizumi covered questions such as how far Dōgen’s idea that existence and time are inseparable is based on the mutual inter-dependence between different entities or how a privileged form of time that may be accessed through “practice and attainment of the way” had properties contrary to the irreversible, external and continuous character of profane time such as reversibility, discontinuity, and monadicity, giving a detailed analysis of the specifics of Dōgen’s – or Buddhism’s – concept of time as it is based on the ontology of muga / anātman. Prof. Steineck presented another paper on Dōgen’s concept of time, placing it in the context of medieval Japanese temporalities. Based on a rigorous analysis of the chronography employed in Dōgen’s writings, he discussed how the dimension of religious time as expressed in his term nikon (“now”, often interpreted as “eternal present”) is related to that of the “twelve hours”, which is mostly equated with profane time in the literature. Steineck specifically pointed out that the “eternal present” is constituted within the quantitative differentiations of time , and that Dōgen’s texts, in spite of the emphasis a large part of the literature places on the “moment” of practice and on the incalculable aspects of religious time, employ numeric chronometry to highlight the duration of practice of the patriarchs and to establish links between the “here and now” of practice and the time of the Buddhas and patriarchs. Etienne Stähelin (PhD student, University of Zurich), in his presentation on “The concept of time within early Kamakura period Sōtō Zen” explored the ways in which Dōgen’s thoughts on time were developed or re-interpreted by his disciples in the earliest commentaries on the Shōbōgenzō, remarking on their tendency to unilaterally stress the unity of all of time and every single moment over and against the differentiation between entities and their times.

Prof. Maki Takayuki then discussed the “Transformation of the Buddhist Tonsure by Japanese Ex-Emperors in the late Heian Period”. He explained the changes in a rite of passage (the taking of the tonsure) as it was practised at court in this period in between the ages and how they related to changes surrounding the transition of office between emperors, which used to shake up the world of the highest echelons of aristocracy in the Heian period because of the interpenetration of this-worldly and other-worldly logic. The final paper in this section by Hoshi Yuya (PhD student, Bukkyō University) turned to the subject of medieval mythology. In his paper “Medieval Mythology and Time Consciousness”, he traced the genealogy of the stories surrounding Doshōjin 土公神 and elucidated how myths and rituals surrounding the calendar and the seasons evolved in medieval rural society. Commenting on this session, Prof. Bandō Yōsuke provisionally linked Shintō to public ritual and Buddhism to personal salvation, while also pointing to the entwinement of both aspects both in Dōgen’s texts and in the imperial ritual of taking the tonsure.

The third day of the symposium started with two papers dedicated to the subject of the body and time. First, Dr. Daniela Tan (University of Zurich) demonstrated how the physiological cycles of the female body were linked to the movement of nature and especially celestial bodies in the chapter on women’s health of Kajiwara Shōzen’s Ton’ishō 『頓医抄』, leading to a cyclical interpretation of their temporal aspect. Next, in a presentation titled “Menstruation and Time Consciousness of Women in Medieval Japan”, Prof. Saitō Nahoko (Kokugakuin University) compared references to the female cycle in nikki such as Utatane 『うたたね』and Towazugatari 『とはずがたり』. She discussed how this cyclical physiological phenomenen affected time consciousness and time regulation of court ladies, highlighting aspects such as the establishment and loss of individuality and gender solidarity, for example in respect to the planning of religious and social activities. The commentator to this session, Dr. Anna Andreeva (Heidelberg University) emphasized the fresh perspective both papers provided on a subject that was traditionally mostly associated with kegare 穢れ (“impurity”), which allowed to transcend the confines of medieval female history.

The afternoon of the third day was dedicated to the subject of “markets”. Prof. Sakurai Eiji (Tokyo University) reported in his paper on “Workday and Wages in Medieval Japan” that, while the prices for physical commodities were decided according to the relation of supply and demand, those for labor and services were not subject to this principle. He found that labor time was paid by the workday, and that there is no evidence suggesting that its value was measured in relation to the unit of the hour, and reflected on the relevance of this fact for medieval time consciousness. The following paper on “Dept Cancellation and the Renewal of Time” by Dr. Kataoka Kōhei (University of Zurich) discussed the “virtuous policy” (tokusei 徳政) of rescinding the sale of land and of cancelling debts from the perspective of time theory by way of a thorough analysis of pertinent documents, arguing that these measures should be interpreted as attempts to restitute an ideal, imagined past, and reflecting on the specifics of medieval ideas of property. Finally, Vroni Ammann (PhD student, University of Zurich) analysed chronometric and chronotypological expressions in the Kunshū ruishō 『薫集類抄』and the Gofushimi in shinkan takimono hō 後伏見院宸翰薫物方, two medieval books on recipes for incense as part of her project to trace the temporal aspects of production, trade, and use of incense in medieval Japan. In her comments, Dr. Angelika Koch (Ghent University) followed up on questions of wage labour and time consciousness, the temporal specifics of tokusei policies, and the use of incense to measure time in order to contextualize the findings of each paper.

The symposium ended with a final round of general comments by Profs. Satō Hiro’o (Tōhoku University), Tsuji, and Bandō. Prof. Satō reviewed the contributions from the point of view of the social and geographical stratification of time consciousness and time regulation in medieval Japanese society, contrasting it to current notions of homogenized and linearized “modern” time, emphasizing the need to further research the relation between the apparent temporal plurality and the general social structure of medieval society. He also called into question facile dichotomies between medieval and modern time consciousness. Prof. Bandō followed up on these remarks, stating that while the ancient ritsuryō 律令state had possessed the power to homogenize previous plural time regimes, centrifugal forces (such as the strong tendency to rely on Buddhist images of time) gained more influence in the medieval period, which explains in part the stronger visibility of temporal plurality in this era. Finally, Prof. Tsuji placed the conference in the context of current societal issues. The conference was closed by Profs. Fujisawa and Steineck, who both emphasized the many insights gained through the multidisciplinary approach this conference took to the subject of time, and expressed their gratitude to everyone involved.


See also:
http://timestudies.net/?p=918


- source : PMJS: Listserve -

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2018-07-24

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- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Natural Disasters 自然災害 shizen saigai - Legends - - ABC list .
- drought, earthquake, flooding, landslides, tsunami, typhoon, volcanic eruption -


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. Abekawa, Abe-Kawa 安倍川 river in Shizuoka . *

. Abe no Seimei 阿倍晴明 (921 - 1005) .

. Legends from Adachi ku 足立区 Adachi ward .

adauchi 仇討ち revenge killing
- 18 entries to explore -

. Akagisan Mount Akagisan 赤城山 Gunma.
37 to explore

. amagoi 雨乞い rain rituals .
to explore
..... . amagoi legend from Fukagawa, Koto ward .


. Amanojaku 天邪鬼 Heavenly Evil Spirit .

. amazake 甘酒 "sweet rice wine" - Amazake .
- to explore

. Amida Nyorai 阿弥陀如来 .
100 to explore

. anesama ningyoo 姉様人形 "elder sister" dolls .

. aoboozu 青坊主 Ao-Bozu "Blue Priest" Yokai monster .
08 to explore

. Aoso Jinja 青麻神社 "Green Hemp Shrine" . - Sendai, Miyagi

. Asakusa in Edo 浅草 江戸 . *

. Asamayama, Asama yama 浅間山 Mount Asama, a volcano .
14 legends to explore

. Ashikaga Takauji 足利尊氏 - Shogun (1305 – 1358) .

. Atago Gongen 愛宕権現 . *
avatar (Gongen) of Buddhist Bodhisattva Jizo Bosatsu.
77 to explore


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2018-07-23

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. - - - ABC List of this BLOG - - - .
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bakemono yashiki 化物屋敷 home with monsters
9 to explore


. bakuchi 博打 - tobaku 賭博 gambling . *
19 to explore

. bijin - Edo no bijin 江戸の美人 the beauties of Edo .
美人 89 to explore

. bikuni 比丘尼 Buddhist nun (ama 尼) . *
50 to explore

. Binbogami 貧乏神 Bimbogami, God of Poverty . *
42 to explore

. Bonten 梵天 Baramonten, Brahma . *

boozu 大坊主, 小坊主 monk priest, young monk
. boozu 坊主 / oshoo 和尚 priest/ .
316 to explore

. Buddhist Temples and Sake 酒とお寺 .

. Bunkyō 文京区 Bunkyo ward, "Literature Capital" - Tokyo .
many legends to translate

. butsudan 仏壇 / 佛壇 Buddhist family altar . *
90 legends to explore

. byakudan 白檀 sandalwood legends .

. byooninda 病人田 field of an ill person .
36 to explore / and https://fudosama.blogspot.jp/2005/02/juusanbutsu.html


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2018-07-22

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. Castles and their Legends お城と伝説  . *

. choochin 提灯 / 提燈 / チョウチン Chochin, Lantern .
300 + to explore

. craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker 職人 shokunin .
21 entries to explore


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2018-07-21

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. Daidarabotchi ダイダラボッチ Monster .
- デエダラボッチ deidaarabotchi / デーデッポ Deedeppo

daikokubashira 大黒柱 strongest pillar of a building
. Daikoku Ten 大黒天 .
86 大黒 to explore

. daiku 大工 carpenter and legends . *

. dankon 男根 penis .
20 to explore

. Dewa sansan 出羽三山 .
7 to explore

. dokuro 髑髏 Gasha-dokuro がしゃどくろ "rattling skull" legends

. Doosojin, Dososhin 道祖神 Legends about Wayside Gods .

. doozan, dōzan 銅山 Dozan copper mine .

. doyoo 土用 Doyo days .
44 to explore

. Dragon - ryuu, ryū 龍 竜 伝説 Ryu - dragon legends . *

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2018-07-20

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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. - - - ABC List of this BLOG - - - .
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. Ebisu, Hiruko 蛭子 .
蛭子 - 7 legends to explore
えびす様 - 9 legends // 恵比寿 - 36  // 恵比須 15

. eboshi 烏帽子 officials hat .
28 to explore - Tateeboshi 立烏帽子 Lady Tate Eboshi

. Edo - Legends and Tales from Edo 江戸の伝説 .

. ema 絵馬 votive tablets .
78 legends to explore

. Enkuu 円空 Legends about Master Carver Enku 円空と伝説  .

. En noGyôja 役行者 En no Gyoja .
34 役行者 / 15 小角 / 7 役小角


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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
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