2020-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.


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Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .


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- the latest additions
. groups.io/g/darumapediamemo .

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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2020-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, the oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


. Legends and tales 伝説 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


. Asuka Kiyomihara Palace 飛鳥 清見原 .

auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise


. Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war - 672 .
Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno


. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

kinri 禁裏 / 禁中 / 御所 living quarters of the emperor
- kinri sama 禁裏様 Emperor

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. “Time in Medieval Japan” - symposium 2018 .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

. Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka .
and - Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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2020-03-20

hatsuka day 20 legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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hatsuka 二十日 と伝説 Legends about day 20 of a month

. hatsuka iwai 二十日祝い celebrating on January 20 .



January 20 is a special "New Years Day" (hatsuka shogatsu 二十日正月) in Japan.
The Samurai class took this as a special ritual and prepared special food for this day. The ladies of the house where allowed for the first time now to take the cover off the mirror and look at their faces. They also could eat the rice cakes that had been put as offerings before the mirror boxes (kyoodai 鏡台).

Officially this was the last day of New Years celebrations, where folks would cook rice with red soy beans (sekihan 赤飯) and eat the last New Year cakes to celebrate.

In the area of Kyoto and Osaka, the leftover bones of yellowtail (buri) offered during the New Year celebrations were cooked and eaten (New Year bones, hone shoogatsu 骨正月).

It was also the day when the God of Good Luck, Ebisu, had his first festival.

. hatsuka Ebisu 二十日戎 (はつかえびす) Ebisu on January 20 .
hatsuka Ebisu matsuri 二十日戎祭 Ebisu Ceremonies in Edo and the Kanto area


Asakusa Hatsuka Ebisu 浅草廿日戎 Festival in Asakusa


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hate no hatsuka 果ての二十日 the final day 20
An evil day, to avoid angering the Yamanokami山の神 Kami of the Mountains, people should not enter a mountain.
..... the 20th day of the 12th lunar month, the day when all Oni become free,
. Inozasa-O 猪笹王 Wild Boar became an Oni Demon .


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. Basho visiting Okamoto Taiso 岡本苔蘇 - .

During his stay at the Gourd Bamboo Hermitage, 松尾芭蕉 Matsuo Basho wrote the following hokku:



花を宿に始め終りや二十日ほど
hana no yado ni hajime owari ya hatsuka hodo

at this lodging with cherry blossoms
from beginning to end -
about twenty days


Basho enjoyed his time there just as long as the cherry blossoms were in full bloom.
Written in the spring of 1688 元禄元年春.


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hatsuka nezumi 二十日鼠 / 廿日鼠 / ハツカネズミ house mouse, white moues
family Mus
Its gestation period is roughly 20 days.




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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

Many legends and customs about day 20 are related to Yamanokami:
On these days there are various taboos for the farmers and forest workers.

. Yamanokami Legends from Ehime 愛媛県 .

. Yamanokmai Legends from Hiroshima 広島県 .

. Yamanokami Legends from Mie 三重県 .

. Yamanokami Legends from Saga 佐賀県 .

. Yamanokami and Tengu Legends from Toyama 富山県 .

. Yamanokami Legends from Yamaguchi 山口県 .


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There are various regional Ebisuko ceremony and festival groups on this day

. Ebisu-koo, Ebisukoo 恵比寿講 / 夷講 / エビス講 Ebisu Ko .



......................................................................................... Gunma 群馬県
.......................................................................
甘楽郡 Kanra district

O-Ebisu san オエビスサン / オエベツ さん Ebetsu san is venerated in the ceremony groups on
January and November 20.
Ebisu is a wealthy person who gets out to work early in the morning on day 20 of January and comes back late at night on Day 20 in November.
The morning of January 20 is called asa Ebisu 朝エビス Ebisu in the morning.
People prepare special food to see him off.
The evening of November 20 is called yuu Ebisu 夕エビス Ebisu in the evening.



......................................................................................... Nara 奈良県
.......................................................................
春日町 Kasuga town

kaii 怪異 something weird
In the year 1791, on day 20 in August, the official day of audiences with the regent, there was a huge storm and rain.
The shinboku 神木 sacred tree of the Shrine 春日大社 Kasuga Taisha and the tooroo 燈篭 stone lantern in the park fell down.




......................................................................................... Saga 佐賀県
.......................................................................
鎮西町 Chinzei town

おちょす様 O-Chosu sama
At the wayside there was sacred a rock named O-Chosu sama and people venerated 藁葺き屋根の木 a tree where the bark was used for roof tiles.
On day 20 of the New Year, children used the rock as target for shooting arrows.
Once the villagers wanted to remove the rock, but that would bring bad luck.




......................................................................................... Shimane 島根県

If people prepare chikara mochi 力餅 rice cakes to bring strenth, on day 20 of the New Year, they will all become strong in the coming year.

. chikara mochi 力餅 Mochi to bring strength .




......................................................................................... Tokushima 徳島県

The last day 20 of the year in December in the local dialect is called
hatsuru hatsuka 果つる二十日
On this day many bad things can happen and people refrain from going very far, doing a great house-cleaning, having a wedding ceremony or do sentaku 洗濯 a lot of washing.

.......................................................................
Tokushima 阿南市 Anan city

hate no hatsuka 果ての二十日 the last day 20 of the year
A large man of almost 2 meters lived in the village. He was very stubborn and did not listen to the warnings of his family.
On the last day 20 of the year he went to the mountain to split rocks for a wall. On his way back he met a horse carriage with barrels of 生石灰 lime stones.
A voice ordered him "Climb up on this carriage!", so he climbed up on a board and when he was on the barrels with the stones, he wanted to let the board down. One of the barrels fell into the pond. Then one of the barrels fell on him and eventually he burned to death.




......................................................................................... Toyama 富山県



On day 20 of January Ebisu Sama goes to 北海道 Hokkaido to work.
On 十一月二十日 day 20th of Novewmber, Ebisu Sama comes back from 北海道 Hokkaido and brings money.




......................................................................................... Yamagata 山形県
.......................................................................
西村山郡 Nishi-Murayama district

sakenosuke サケノスケ the Salmon named Sakenosuke
On Day 20 of the 10th lunar month during the hatsuka Ebisu 二十日講 Ebisu rituals, the fish comes upriver calling out
「サケノスケ今通る」 Sakenosuke is now passing !
and hitting a cutting board with a kitchen knife.
Anybody who hears his voice will die soon.

. sake no oosuke 鮭の大助 the salmon called Osuke .




......................................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県
.......................................................................
都留市 Tsuru city

On Day 20 of January Ebisu san goes out to work and make money. The family sees him off with an auspicious meal of sekihan 赤飯 red rice.
If they forget to prepare the rice, the family will not make much money in the coming year.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Kaido highway legends 街道と伝説 - - ABC list .

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -

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2020-03-06

Gozan Bungaku Literature

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Gozan Bungaku 五山文学 Literature of the Five Mountains


五山文学研究 / 堀川貴司

虎関師錬 Kokan Shiren (1278-1346)
寂室元光 Jakushitsu Genko (1290-1367)
雪村友梅 Sesson Yubai (1290-1347)
中巌円月 Chugan Engetsu (1300-1375)
愚中周及 Guchu Shukyu (1323-1409)
義堂周信 Gido Shushin (1325-1388)
絶海中津 Zekkai Chushin (1334-1405)
瑞渓周鳳 Zuikei Shuho (1392-1473)
万里集九 Banri Shuku (1428-?)
横川景三 Osen Keisan (1429-1493)
策彦周良 Sangen Shuryo (1501-1579)


..............................................................................................................................................


- quote -
The literature of the Five Mountains (Japanese: 五山文学, gozan bungaku)
is the literature produced by the principal Zen (禅) monastic centers of the Rinzai sect in Kyoto and Kamakura, Japan.
The term also refers to five Zen centers in China in Hangzhou and Ningpo that inspired zen in Japan, while the term "mountain" refers to a Buddhist monastery.
Five Mountains literature or gozan bungaku (五山文學)
is used collectively to refer to the poetry and prose in Chinese produced by Japanese monks during the 14th and 15th centuries. Included are works by Chinese monks residing in Japan.
The period witnessed a widespread importation of cultural influences from Song and Yuan period China that in many ways transformed Japan.
- source : wikipedia english -




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- Reference in Japanese 五山文学 -
- reference : wikipedia -



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2020-03-03

Hinamatsuri Doll Festival legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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hina matsuri 雛祭と伝説 Legends about the Doll Festival


shiawasebina しあわせ雛 Happy Hina Dolls
Usaburo Kokeshi (卯三郎こけし) - Gunma

. Hina Doll Festival (hina matsuri 雛祭り) - March 03 .
- Introduction -


- CLICK on the photos below to see Hina Doll decorations from the prefectures!
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Hinazuru Jinja 雛鶴神社 (ひなづるじんじゃ) Hinatsuru Shrine
山梨県都留市朝日曾雌 Tsuru city, Asahi Soshi
Dedicated to Hinazuru Hime 雛鶴姫 Princess Hinazuru, Tsuruhime Sama 鶴姫さま



She was the wife of 護良親王 Moriyoshi Shinno, who's head is venerated at the Shrine 石船神社 Iwafune Jinja.

- quote -
Prince Moriyoshi (護良親王, Moriyoshi Shinnō, also called Prince Morinaga or Prince Oōtōnomiya) (1308 – 1335) was a Japanese prince and monk.
He was the son of Emperor Go-Daigo and his consort Minamoto no Chikako.
His wife was Princess Hinatsuru. She was pregnant and fled to Yamanashi.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- - - - - A legend from Yamanashi, 秋山村 Akiyama village:
In this village, people do not decorate with kadomatsu 門松 pine decorations.
Princess Hinazuru had fled to this village and died here on December 28.
So there was no time to put up pine decorations.
People stick a branch of the kunugi 椚 / 櫟 sawtooth oak, Quercus acutissima in the ground instead.

. kadomatsu 門松と伝説 Legends about pine decorations .


There is another Shrine with this name at Uenohara, Yamanashi.




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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

In the year 1745, at the home of 中山大納言栄親卿 Nakayama Dainagon Naruchika the things decorated in his home seemed moving and ceramic pieces were floating around.
He had purifucation rituals held and died in the autumn of the year.
When the family decorated Hina dolls next year in March, the dolls begun to laugh.



......................................................................................... Kagawa 香川県
.......................................................................
木田郡 Kita district 三木町 Miki town

At the home of 三平 Sanpei, who lived near the graveyard at 二ノ坂 Ninosaka, they decorate Hina dolls and talk to them in a loud voice.
One day there was a fire at the home, but the Hina dolls seemed to come alive and rolled out of the danger.

.......................................................................
Kagawa 三豊市 Mitoyo city 仁尾町 Nio town

shishi koma 獅子駒 / シシコマ rice cake offerings like animals


Once there was the castle of 細川越中の守 the Hosokawa regent of Etchu, but the castle was lost in war and 長曽我部氏 Lord Chosokabe commited suicide on the day of the Hina Doll Festival.
Therefore the people of the area do not decorate Hina dolls in March, but on hassaku 八朔 the first of August.
His soul came back as a strange beast, and caused much trouble. To appease his soul people prepared special rice cakes.

. hassaku 八朔 (はっさく) first of August .
Many people in Western and Central Japan prepare these rice cakes for the Hassaku rituals.
hassakubina, hassaku hina 八朔雛

.......................................................................






......................................................................................... Kumamoto 熊本県
.......................................................................
玉名郡 Tamana district 南関町 Nankan town

Once upon a time
A father of two sons told them to leave home for three years to learn something and then come back.
The elder son became a skilled carpenter.
The other brought two beautiful ひーなさん Hina dolls - he had stolen them from the home where he had worked, and thus became a thief.

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......................................................................................... Niigata 新潟県
.......................................................................
糸魚川市 Itoigawa city

On March 3, the day of the Hina Matsuri it usually rains.
It also rains if people do not pack the dolls away on the fourth day it will rain and a daughter of such a home will have a hard time finding a husband.

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......................................................................................... Shizuoka 静岡県
.......................................................................
磐田市 Iwata city

. ujigami 氏神 clan KAMI deities .
The clan deities do not like Hina dolls and the villagers to not celebrate on March 3.
If a family keeps dolls, they would have bad luck and get ill.

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......................................................................................... Tokyo 東京都
.......................................................................
八王子市 Hachioji city

Two beautifully dressed girls kept going up and down the staircase. When the housewife went up there, she fould an old box in the corner with Hina dolls.
These two had wanted to be shown again and thus the family offered them to the local Shinto Shrine.

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......................................................................................... Yamagata 山形県

miruna no zashiki みるなの座敷 "don't look in the living room"
In the mansion there was a special room where men were not allowed to look inside.
One man did not adhere to this rule and stepped inside.
The first room was decorated for the New Year,
The second room was for the hatsu-uma 初午 first day of the horse in February.
The third one was for the Hina Doll festival in March.
May was for taue 田植え planting the rice fields.
June was for pulling weeds from the fields.
July (not August) was for bon odori 盆踊り the Bon dance.
September was for inekari 稲刈り cutting the rice.
October was for dakkoku 脱穀 threshing.
When he looked in the last room for December, there was a very strong snowstorm and the man died in the cold.

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......................................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県
.......................................................................
富士吉田市 Fuji Yoshida

If the Hina dolls are not taken out for display until the 28th of February, they will begin to cry.

.......................................................................



Yamanashi Tsurushibina Kan つるし雛館 Museum for Tsurushibina hanging dolls
- reference source : katorihomes.com/blog... -


. tsurushibina, tsurushi bina つるし雛 / 吊るし雛 small hanging hina dolls .
These small dolls are suspended from the ceiling, an umbrella or a large branch ...

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Kaido highway legends 街道と伝説 - - ABC list .

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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- #hinaningyo #hinadoll #hinamatsuri #dollfestival #hinafestival #hinaturu -
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2020-02-02

komugi omugi wheat barley legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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komugi 小麦と伝説 Legends about wheat
oomugi 大麦と伝説 Legends about barley


- - barley and wheat - -

. komugi 小麦 / mugi 麦 wheat .
oomugi 大麦 Omugi, barley, "large Mugi"
- Introduction -


mugimeshi 麦飯 / bakuhan バクハン cooked rice with wheat




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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


......................................................................................... Aomori 青森県
.......................................................................
田名部 Tanabu

. wheat offerings for O-Bon .




......................................................................................... Hiroshima 広島県
.......................................................................
庄原市 Shobara city // 麦飯

. Yamanokami Legends from Hiroshima 広島県 .
mugi shoogatsu 麦正月 New Year to honour barley and wheat
mugimeshi shoogatsu 麦飯正月 eating cooked rice with wheat for the New Year




......................................................................................... Kagawa 香川県
.......................................................................
仲多度郡 Naka-Tado district 琴南町 Kotonami town

hattai ko ハッタイ粉 / 糗粉 / 麨粉 roasted barley flour
On day 14 of the New Year rituals, in the morning people sprinkle this flour around the house, walking from left to right, reciting
naga mushi kona kona 長虫クナクナ - May the worms not come into the home!
The line of the flour on the ground must not be interrupted, lest the worms find an entry.






......................................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県
.......................................................................
仙台市 Sendai city // 麦飯

. unagi うなぎ / 鰻 と伝説 Legends about the eel .

Genbeibuchi 源兵衛渕 the river pool of Gohei
About 20 meters downriver from 御霊屋橋 the bridge Mitamayabashi there is a river pool.
During お盆 the O-Bon season, the young men from the area gathered here to discuss catching unagi 鰻 eel when a priest came along and told them:
"You should not kill any living being during the O-Bon season!"
The priest had been to a home before and partaken of the food offerings of mugimeshi 麦飯 cooked rice with wheat.
源兵衛 Gohei thought that the priest must have been the eel master of the river pool.
They used poison to catch eels, and when one floated up, they caught it and opened its stomach. Inside was
mugimeshi 麦飯 cooked rice with wheat, which they had offered to the priest.
Genbei died of the curse of killing an eel and the area was called after him, Genbeibuchi.

. O-Bon お盆 rituals for the ancestors .




......................................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県
.......................................................................
河内地方 Kawachi region // 麦飯 / 麦 wheat

. oni no ha 鬼の歯 teeth, fangs of a demon .


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
大麦 ok // mugimeshi 麦飯 ok
11 小麦 (01)

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. Kaido highway legends 街道と伝説 - - ABC list .

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -

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- #komugi #barley #wheat #omugi #mugimeshi #mugi #weizen #gerste -
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2020-02-01

hayariyamai epidemic legends

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hayariyamai はやり病 / Ryukobyo 流行病と伝説 Legends about epidemics
densenbyoo 伝染病 Densenbyo contagious diseases / pandemic
ekiri 疫痢 plague


. coronavirus spreading コロナウイルス .
- The situation in Japan -
COVID-19 // 2019-nCoV



The whole world is under the influence of this pandemic.

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. Gion matsuri 祇園祭り Gion festival .
In 869, the people were suffering from plague and pestilence which was attributed to the rampaging deity Gozu Tennō (牛頭天王).

Emperor Seiwa ordered that the people pray to the god of the Yasaka Shrine 八坂神社, Susanoo-no-mikoto. Sixty-six stylized and decorated halberds, one for each province in old Japan, were prepared and erected at Shinsen-en, a garden, along with the portable shrines (mikoshi) from Yasaka Shrine.


- Yasaka Shrine in Kamakura


. Daruma, Smallpox and the color Red .
疱瘡神 Hosogami, the God of Smallpox

. Yakubyoogami 疫病神 / 厄病神 Yakubyogami, Deity of Diseases .
eyami no kami えやみのかみ gyooyakujin 行疫神 gyoyakujin
ekijin, yakujin 疫神 / byoshin 病神 / yakushin 厄神 (ヤクシン)

. Gozu Tenno Legends 牛頭天王伝説 .


. geri 下痢と伝説 Legends about dysentery, diarrhea - Durchfall .
sekiri 赤痢 red diarrhea, bloody dysentery // ribyoo 痢病


. kaze 風邪と伝説 Legends about catching a cold .


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


安政5年(1857)に風邪が大流行し、京都や大阪から中国・九州地方にかけて大量の病人がでたが、この病にかかった者は、平生に患っていた頭痛や留飲(消化不良)や疝気(下腹部の痛み)が治ったという。流行病というものは体内に長く溜まった毒素を、外に駆除する効果があるらしい。



......................................................................................... Aichi 愛知県
.......................................................................

Akuro Jin 悪路神 the deity Akuro "of the bad roads"
The festival of the Shrine 津島大社 Tsushima Taishi / 津島神社 Tsushima Jinja is held on the 14th day of the 6th lunar month.
All the boats from the area come with about 33000 taimatsu 松明 pine torches bring their sacred fire to the Shrine.
This will cause the Yakushin 厄神 Deity of Disease to go away. That night all people close the doors and windows and keep very quiet.
The Deity 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno venerated at the Shrine is said to have slain the Akuro Deity. This Deity often comes at night and harms people.

. The river festival at Tsushima shrine .






......................................................................................... Ehime 愛媛県
.......................................................................
越智郡 Ochi district 魚島村 Uoshima village

Gion sama no aka hata 祇園様の赤旗 red flag for Gion Sama
To avoid epidemics, people place a small red flag at the entrance, ギオンサン Gion San.
Someone had seen this in Hiroshima and brought the ritual back home.





......................................................................................... Kagawa 香川県
.......................................................................
坂出市 Sakaide city

momote matsuri 百々手祭り "shooting 100 arrows"
This festival is held on the New Year. since after WWII, when it was not allowed to have weapons any more.
The also stopped this on the island 櫃石島 Hitsuishijima, but in this year, an epidemic broke out and many died.
So the villagers decided to have this festival on a different date from now on.
Similar festivals are held in other parts of Japan.


- quote -
Namari Momote is an archery festival held on a Sunday near the first day of the second month of the lunar calendar.
The festival is held at Sanpoko Jingu Shrine in Namari, Takumacho, a town near the tip of the Shonai Peninsula. It is unclear when the festival started, but it is mentioned in historical records from the latter half of the 18th century. Young archers from the area shoot their arrows to pray for bountiful fishing, good harvest, and the safety of the area, as well as to ward off evil. The making of targets is called matofumi and is done within the shrine grounds. The targets are made by pasting paper onto an oval-shaped woven bamboo object nearly two meters in size, then drawing a black circle in the center.
The archery position is Ogasawara Style, where the bow is shot from a slightly crouched posture. The preparation and running of the festival is done mainly by ten families called toya. Both the main family (hondo), representing the families, and the archers undergo a shiogori, a saltwater purification ceremony at the beach. Furthermore, the series of events leading up to the day of the festival follows the old customs almost exactly, and the events' defining characteristic is strict adherence to tradition.
Also, in Namari there is something called kenka momote, where people in the viewing space (yama) hoot and jeer at the archers. It is said that the more the audience does so, the more bountiful the fishing will be.
- source : rekinabi-sanuki.net... -

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Kagawa 小豆郡 Shozu district 内海町 Utsumicho town // 疫痢

daidai kagura ダイダイ神楽 Dai Dai Kagura
At 小豆島 Shodoshima island the Daidai Kagura from the Shrine of Ise 伊勢 comes around the island to purify each home.
But since the beginning of the Meiji period around 1890 it was thought of as improper and stopped. But in this year in all villages an epidemic broke out. They said it was because they stopped the Kagura dance and from next year on, they performed it again.


source : sueyasumas.exblog...

. dai dai kagure, daidai kagura ダイダイ神楽 / 太太神楽 / 太々神楽 dance .





......................................................................................... Kanagawa 神奈川県
.......................................................................
小田原市 Odawara city

. 目一つ小僧 Mehitotsu Kozo .
一つ目小僧 Hitotsume Kozo - Young Monk with One Eye
On the 8th day of the 12th lunar month, the 厄神 Yakushin deity comes to check where to start an epidemic. On this day people place a bamboo basket with many holes (eyes) under the eves.
Yakushin dislikes "many eyes" and will not come in this home.




......................................................................................... Kyoto 京都府
.......................................................................
Kyoto 亀岡市 Kameoka 千歳町 Chitose

. kinkei 金鶏と伝説 Legends about the golden rooster .
Niwatorizaka にはとり坂 the slope of the rooster
Once the villagers tried to dig out a golden rooster which was buried under a mound. But there came an arrow with white feathers sticking at the bottom of the slope.
And all the villagers soon died of an epidemic.



......................................................................................... Nagano 長野県

. Advise of not getting ill by an epidemic 流行病にかからない俗信 .

.......................................................................
Nagano 佐久市 Saku city

munagata daimyoojin 胸形大明神 / ムナガタ ダイミョウジン Munagata Daimyojin Deity
- - - - - 胸形(むなかた)大明神 Munakata Daimyojin
In 北沢村 Kitasawamura village they venerate a deity called Munagata Daimyojin, who protects the village.
Since olden times, if there is disaster coming to the village, someone will have a dream about ti.
If people place a ritual wand at the shrine during an epidemic, it will pass fast.
Once upon a time, the wife みち Michi of of the headman 惣兵衛 Sohei wanted to have a baby and prayed to this deity. She became pregnant but did not give birth for the next 12 months.
Finally she gave to a stone figure with arms and legs, which is now venerated at the Shrine.
There are many shrines with the name
Munakata Jinja 胸形神社(むなかたじんじゃ)in Japan.

- - - - -

. Oni densetsu 鬼伝説 Regional Demon Legends .
Once upon a time, the shooya 庄屋 headman of the village was the fifth generation of 須江家 the Sue family.
During this time there was an epidemic and many villagers died. To stop the epidemic, the headman vowed to accept all oni 鬼 demons of the epidemic into his estate if the village would be saves.
And indeed, the epidemic stopped.
Since then the family does not throw beans at the demons during 節分 the Setsubun rituals, but open the doors to let them all come in.

- - - - -

shiryoo no haka 死霊の墓 grave for a ghost
Around 1730, one day in the evening a gyooja 行者 pilgrim came to the village and asked for a place to stay over night.
But not one family wanted to accept him. So he went on and in the dark fell down a cliff to his death. Soon afterwards his wife came to look for the body but nobody wanted to help her.
She was very angry and cursed the village. Now an epidemic started in the village.
Later in 1899 the villagers decided to bury the man and give him a proper grave.

.......................................................................
Nagano 東御市 Tomi city 東上田 Higashi-Ueda

. kosodate Jizo 子育て地蔵 child rearing Jizo .
Once there lived a loving couple in the village, but they could not have children. So they went to a Jizo statue nearby and asked Jizo for help. They went there every day, rain or shine.
After a few years they finally had a child. When their beloved child was three years old, it became ill of an emidemic and died. The parents were devastated.
When they went again to the statue of Jizo, they saw a light coming from the back and they heard a voice:
"Your beloved daughter has changed into this Jizo statue. Please love this Jizo like your daughter!"
The couple became happy again and took good care of the statue as long as they lived.




......................................................................................... Nara 奈良県
.......................................................................
葛城市 Katsuragi city // 痢病

kooshin 孝心 filial piety
On the road from the Southern part toward Osaka, there is a pass called 竹の打越. Nearby is the home of a poor family.
The head of the family once suffered of 痢病 the plague. He told his daughter that he would like
to eat some katsuo 鰹 / 鱣 bonito. But since the family was so poor, they could not afford to buy the fish. When the daughter went to draw some water from the river, all of a sudden a bonito was in her bucket. She thought this was a present from heaven and hurried home to prepare the fish for her father. After he had eaten it, his illness became better. Each time the daughter went drawing water, a bonito was in her bucket, until the father was completely healed.
This is a tale to show the merit of filial piety.





......................................................................................... Okayama 岡山県
.......................................................................
八束 Yatsuka 中和村 Chukason village

. kudan 件 / クダン - gyuuki 牛鬼 "bull-demon" .
predicting an epidemic




......................................................................................... Okinawa 沖縄県
.......................................................................
石垣市 Ishigaki city //疫病

egiridori 疫痢鳥 /(エギリドリ)the plague bird
This plague bird has a nocturnal habit. If someone sees it pass, there will be an outbreak of
ekibyoo 疫病 the plague soon.


source : mahoragaillustrations.blogspot...




......................................................................................... Shizuoka 静岡県
.......................................................................
水窪町 Misakubo town

. A a Tengu with a lantern brings ekiri 疫痢 epidemic.




......................................................................................... Tokyo 東京都

. The merchant 堯順 Takayasu and a dead child .





......................................................................................... Tottori 鳥取県
.......................................................................
若桜町 Wakasa town

. A statue of 観音菩薩 Kannon Bosatsu .
- which does not like hospitals for epidemic patients





......................................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県
.......................................................................
上野原市 Uenohara city 秋山村 Akiyama village

preventing infections with
. surumeika スルメイカ squid .

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
ekiri 疫痢 ok
26 流行病 (10)
20 伝染病 (01)
10 八坂神社 (00)

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. Amabie アマビエ mermaid to fight epidemics .


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. Kaido highway legends 街道と伝説 - - ABC list .

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -

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