Showing posts with label - - - Food and Drink - - -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Food and Drink - - -. Show all posts

2016-08-10

saba mackerel legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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saba 鯖と伝説 Legends about mackerel, Makrele

. mackerel, saba 鯖 / サバ Scomber japonicus .
sababi 鯖火(さばび)fire to fish for mackerels
saba tsuri 鯖釣(さばつり)fishing for mackerels
sababune 鯖舟(さばぶね)boat for fishing mackerels
- kigo for all summer -

. saba kaidoo 鯖街道 Makerel road .
transporting the fish from Obama, Fukui to Kyoto.
And some special dishes with this fish!



- quote -
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They are found in both temperate and tropical seas, mostly living along the coast or offshore in the oceanic environment.
- Japanese Spanish mackerel - Scomberomorus niphonius
- Japanese horse mackerel - Trachurus japonicus. The Japanese name for this fish is Aji (あじ)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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There are some legends about the Tengu, who dislikes 生鯖 mackerels.
天狗は鯖が苦手 / 天狗は鯖が嫌い

There are various theories about this.
Maybe the Tengu, as a being from the mountains and forests, is not used to fish and usually does not get fresh fish. So when some had been carried to the mountains and got half-rotten on the way, by the time the Tengu ate it, he got ill.

sabayomi 鯖読み "to read a makerel", to understand its age by the body length and weight.
Many salted makerels carried from Obama to Kyoto lost their freshness on the way and a professionel Sabayomi had to check their condition.
In some regions, the search for a lost child comes with calling out
「鯖読んだ◯◯帰ってこーい」saba yonda (00) kaette koi!
This might just have been a misunderstanding of calling
「鯖食った○○やい」saba kutta (00) yai! - or - 鯖食った○○おらんかー

tengu sarai 天狗攫い / tengu kakushi 天狗隠し - kidnapped by a Tengu

In our modern times and tales, it even helps to show a metal can of mackerels to a Tengu to make him run away.

The real reason why a Tengu dislikes mackerels is not quite clear, however.
「天狗の嫌うものは鯖である」とあるが、なぜ嫌うかは不明。
- source : crd.ndl.go.jp/reference -


. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .


source : tengart.com

.......................................................................... Fukui 福井県 ......................................
福井市 Fukui town

When someone looses a hatchet or sickle in the mountains, they mumble
サバ(鯖)の骨はどこへいったかな」
Where did I loose the bones of the mackerel?
The Tengu, who dislikes mackerels, will soon come and help find the sickle.


.......................................................................... Ishikawa 石川県 ......................................
白山市 Hakusan district 河内町 Kawachi

The Tengu likes to build his nest in a new home.
Therefore when building a new house, people put up an amulet to prevent this and ward off all kinds of evil. A six-cornered reel is set up, with a mackerel inside, during the rituals for building a new home.
After the ritual, the fish is let free in the river.
Similar rituals are held for new homes in other parts of Ishikawa prefecture.
The fish can be hung from the main pillar or outside under the eaves of the roof, to ward off a Tengu.

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石川郡 Ishikawa district

Sometimes children get lost and do not come back home. People think they are kidnapped by a Tengu. So the men from the village walk around to look for the child, calling out loud that the child likes mackerels or has just eaten mackerels.
This custom is also common in other parts of Ishikawa prefecture.


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能美郡 Nomi district 川北村 Kawakita

During the Meiji period, a boy named サク Saku got lost and was missing. His parents called out for two nights:
「鯖食うたサク」 saba kuuta saku
(Saku has been eating mackerels)
(It is said that the Tengu dislikes mackerels!)
And then found him sleeping in the store house.
He told them he had been caught by a Tengu and spent the time as prisoner in the branches of a Zelkova tree. Eventually the Tengu had let him down.


.......................................................................... Nagano 長野県 ......................................

Guhinsama グヒンサマ Guhin Sama Tengu
Sometimes children get lost and do not come back home. People think they are kidnapped by a Tengu or Guhin. So the men from the village walk around to look for the child, calling out loud that the child has just eaten mackerels, 「鯖食った鯖食った」.

. guhin kuhin gubin 狗賓 / グヒン Guhin Tengu Yokai monster .



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Saba Daishi 鯖大師 "Mackerel and Kobo Daishi"
On the Shikoku Henro road, located between Temples 23 and 24. in Tokushima Prefecture

In Buddhism, SABA is spelled 生飯(さば), offering some rice from one's own food to the hungry souls and demons and wild beasts.
Also read さんば sanba or sanban 散飯.



- quote -
Shikoku 88 Temples Foot Pilgrimage, Temple Saba Daishi
The story is that Kobo Daishi (in the 800’s) met a dried Mackerel seller on the road.
He was hungry, and he asked the trader to spare a dried fish.
The trader thought that Kobo Daishi was a beggar, and he refused.
He said that it is his livelihood, and that he cannot give all of his supplies away.
A bit later the man’s horse got very sick.
The trader realized that the beggar was the famous but humble Kobo Daishi, and he ran down the trail to ask Kobo Daishi for his forgiveness.
- - - Kobo Daishi forgave him and healed his horse.
The man insisted that Kobo Daishi eat one of his mackerel.
Kobo Daishi ate the dried Mackerel and then excreted the fish, fully alive.
- source : talilandsmanart.com -

. Shikoku Henro Temple List .


- - Now back to more regional legends about the mackerels ! - -
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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県 ......................................

During the 華厳会 Kegon ritual of painting eyes for the statue of the Great Buddha at the temple 東大寺 Todai-Ji an old man passing by, who had carried a bamboo basket with mackerels was summoned to read the Kegon Sutra. This was done because the 聖武天皇 Shomu Tenno (701 - 756) had a dream telling him to summon the first person passing the Hall in the morning should read the Sutra.
When the rituals were over, the old man suddenly disappeared.
The mackerels turned into 80 volumes of the 華厳経 Kegon Sutra.
The old man had been an incarnation of the Buddha himself.



The old man had forgotten his 杖 walking staff in the Eastern part of the temple, where it turned into a tree in the course of time. Now it is known as
saba no ki 鯖の木 the mackerel tree.



- More tales from Yamato and Nara:
- reference : nara.jr-central.co.jp/campaign/wokashi -


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
56 to explore (01)

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. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #saba #mackerel -
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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2016-05-06

soba buckwheat noodle legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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soba 蕎麦 と 伝説 Legends about buckwheat


Daruma eating buckwheat noodles

Soba is a type of thin Japanese noodle made from buckwheat flour. It is served either chilled with a dipping sauce, or in hot broth as a noodle soup.
Soba grows in regions not suited for rice, so it is the "food of the poor" in mountain regions.

. soba 蕎麦 buckwheat - Buchweizen .
- Introduction -


When Isabella Bird (1831 - 1904)
was served Buckwheat noodles and Takuan for the first time (and a few times later), she compared the noodles to "earthworms" and the smell of Takuan to a skunk.

Unbeaten Tracks in Japan.
Six Months Among the Palm Groves, Coral Reefs and Volcanoes of the Sandwich Islands.

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CLICK for more photos !

sobachoko, soba choko 蕎麦猪口 small pot with sauce to dip the Soba in


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akuboshi 悪星 "unauspicious star"
In the middle of May an unauspicious "bad star" appeared in the sky in the South. Everybody was afraid, because they were told whoever looked at this star will die.
But they also said that if you eat Soba right after that, you will not die.

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soy beans 大豆 daizu - red beans 小豆 azuki - 蕎麦 Soba - barley 麦 mugi

Around the 25th day of the 1st month in the year 1733 (享保18年1月25日頃) it suddenly rained grains from the sky in the Ise and Kinki region. People picked them up, made flour from them and ate them as dumplings.
On the 24th day of the 2nd month the same happened in Kyoto, from 京都四条河原 Shijo toward 松原 Matsubara.
And again it rained barley 麦 mugi and 蕎麦 Soba from the sky, but someone picked the grains up and they only looked like such.
And in the text year, there was a great famine.
Whatever it was, also known from the history of China, when it rained from the sky, next year was a famine 飢饉.

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If you peel of the husk of buckwheat seeds and place them near a swamp in winter, the next year there will be a lot of dojoo 泥鰌 Dojo loaches to eat.

In the legends below there are some with a fox.

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yotaka soba 夜鷹蕎麦 Soba for "night hawker" prostitutes


source : 77422158.at.webry.info - 蘭鋳郎の日常

. Edo Yatai 江戸屋台 Food stalls in Edo .
The most famous three ones were for Sushi, Tenpura and Soba buckwheat noodles.

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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Aichi 愛知県 ......................................

In many parts in the 北設楽郡 Kitashitara district, if people go to the mountains to work and take some soba mochi 蕎麦餅 filled buckwheat dumplings, they will turn into a wild animal (kemono 獣).




.......................................................................... Akita 秋田県 ......................................
由利郡 Yuri district, 大内村 Ouchi

. 藤原喜平 Fujiwara Kihei - 悪食喜平 Akujiki Kihei and Kappa .
and 蕎麦酒 Buckwheat liquor


蕎麦の酒 - Suehiro Sake Co. - Fukushima


.......................................................................... Aomori 青森県 ......................................
八戸市 Hachinohe

. yamabato 山鳩 mountain dove .
and a famine


.......................................................................... Fukuoka 福岡県 ......................................
北九州市 Kitakyushu

. 河童 Kappa,海御前様 Amagozensama, Ama Gozen .
Shrine 天疫神社 Teneki Jinja


.......................................................................... Fukushima 福島県 ......................................
田村郡 Tamura district, 都路村 Miyakoji

kitsune 狐 fox
Once a fox had devastated the fields and grandpa got angry, He waited for the fox to kill him. When a person passed by, he saw grandpa with tucked hems, stepping on the buckwheat plants in the field. But he was in fact bewitched by the fox and thought he was stepping in the water. So just as well, he was lucky someone came by and woke him up.
.
In a version from 大沼郡 Onuma district, 金山町 Kaneyama, it was a man trying to harvest buckwheat who was bewitched by a fox thinking he was wading in a deep river.

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大沼郡 Tanuma district 金山町 Kaneyama

kitsune 狐 fox
話者の祖父が夜、魚を背負って帰るときに狐につけられて、魚を取られた。蕎麦の畑で芸者が歌ったり踊ったりしているように見えたが、そんなところに芸者がいるわけがないと思えて、狐に化かされていると気づいた。


.......................................................................... Gifu 岐阜県 ......................................
飛騨地方 Hida region

mujina 狢 badger
昔々ある老人が山小屋で蕎麦落しをしていたら、どこかから毎夜小僧が現れ話しかけるので困った。老人は石を焼いて小僧に投げつけたらひどい声がして倒れたものがあった。翌朝見ると大きな狢であった。

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荘川村 Shokawa

mujina 狢 badger
This badger shapeshifted into a woman and played tricks on people, letting them get lost in the mountains or hanging themselves.



Sometimes she made them eat soba dango 蕎麦団子 buckwheat dumplings , which were in fact 馬糞 horse apples.


.......................................................................... Gunma 群馬県 ......................................
吾妻郡 Agatsuma district 嬬恋村 Tsumagoi

to ward off 鬼 Oni demons
People offer dumplings made of rice, buckwheat or millet flour on January 31. They make these offerings to the 神仏 deities of Shinto and Buddhism at the entrance of their home or near a window. These dumplings are called "oni no medama 鬼の目玉 "eyeballs of a demon" and ward off all evil.
If a demon comes and sees these huge eyeballs, he becomes afraid and runs away.


.......................................................................... Ibaraki 茨城県 ......................................
稲敷郡 Inashiki

kitsune 狐 fox
Once a man took his horse to work in the forest. When he passed by a swamp, suddenly something white blew over his head, . The horse was afraid and run away fast. The horse reached home safely but the man did not come. So his family went out looking for him.
They would him walking rounds in the buckwheat field. Nobody knew what really happened, but they agreed that he must have been bewitched by a fox.


.......................................................................... Iwate 岩手県 ......................................

with prayers for a good harvest of the "five grains "五穀

一月十六日の未明に鳥追いを済ませたあと、座敷に飾っていた御作立ての中で瑞木団子と蕎麦を残して、後は刈り取ってしまっておくと、その年の五穀が風が当たらずよく実るという。

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kitsune 狐 fox and 大入道 Dainyudo

昔、夜遅くに若い女を見て狐が化けていると正体を見破った男は、次に大入道に会い、狐と見破る。家に着くと狐がいたので叩いているとそれは雨着だった。またある時には、大水が出たと思わされて、蕎麦畑を裸であるかされたりもした。

Sometimes people get bewitched by a fox and run around naked in what they think is the sea or a river, but in fact they are trampling in their 蕎麦畑 buckwheat fields.

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source : youkaiwiki.com/entry/2013

akari nashi soba 燈無蕎麦(あかりなしそば)The Unlit Soba Shop

- quote -
Akarinashi Soba – The Unlit Soba Shop
Above the bridge that spanned the flowing canal, a soba shop stood whose paper lantern had the words “28” written on it in thick, bold characters. Even when all the fires were put out, and the street was in darkness, this lantern would continue to shine, without candle or oil.
Those who tried in vain to douse the lantern would meet with no success, and misfortune would fall upon their household.
- source : Zack Davisson -


. Honjo Nana Fushigi 本所七不思議 Seven Wonders of Honjo - Edo .

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.......................................................................... Kanagawa 神奈川県 ......................................

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足柄上郡 Ashigara district 三保村 Miho

kitsune 狐 fox
Once a man had caught three ヤマメ Yamame trout-salmons. But a fox passed by, threw a net over him at the Soba field and stole all the fish.

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川崎市 Kawasaki, 多摩区 Tama district

hitotsume no mekari baasan 一つ目のメカリバアサン
2月8日と12月8日の夜には一つ目のメカリバアサンがやって来るのだという。障子の穴から中を覗いては子供を攫って行くのだと言い、それを防ぐ為に、夕方から竿の先に目数の多い笊をかけて屋根に立てかけておく。グミの木を燃やしておくと、その煙で逃げていくとも行った。この日は遠出を避け、夜には蕎麦を食べたりもする。

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津久井郡 Tsukui district 城山町 Shiroyama

kamikakushi 神隠し "being spirited away"
tengoosama テンゴウサマ Tengu

kamikakushi here means to be taken away by a Tengu. People begin to eat earthworms thinking they are buckwheat noodles and run round and round in the mountains.
When they are found by their fellow villagers, they are usually sitting in a tree.

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横浜市 Yokohama, Minato district

mekari baasan メカリ婆さん Old Mekari Woman
12月8日にはメカリ婆さんが来るので、目籠を軒下に伏せて置いたり、団子掬いを柱にかけておいたりする。また、悪い米の粉を使った団子を2、3個串に刺して柱に縄で縛っておくと、この婆さんがそれを食べるのだとともいう。2月8日は悪い日だと言って、蕎麦やオコワなどを作り、外出を忌んだ。

. mekari shinji 和布刈神事 ritual cutting of kelp .
4 to explore

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横浜市 Yokohama

kitsune 狐 fox
Once upon a time
a man went into the mountain forest to work, but got bewitched by a fox. Then e ate an earthworm, thinking it was buckwheat noodles. And then he walked in circles in the mountain for a long time.


.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 ......................................
Sendai 宮城野区

. Sobagomezaka 蕎麦米坂 and Sendai castle . *
伊達政宗 Date Masamune

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角田市 Kakuda town

kitsune 狐 fox
神次郎部落のある老婆が,親戚のお祭振舞に呼ばれたまま夜更けまで帰宅しなかった。未明,家人が心配して探しに行くと,老婆は裾をはしょって川を渡る格好をし,「深い深い」といいながら山の蕎麦畑の中を歩き回っていた。家人に大声で呼ばれて正気にかえったが,土産の重箱は狐に攫われてしまっていた。


.......................................................................... Nagano 長野県 ......................................
南安曇郡 Minami Azumino district

Izuna いづな the Izuna Deity t
いづな使いの婆様をたしなめた士が、婆様のついた悪態どおりに帰り道でいづなに憑かれて腰を抜かした。皆で蕎麦を打った時、婆様が蕎麦の上に尻をついたので皆が汚がっているところを婆様がひとりで食べた。それを怒った爺はいづなにとりつかれて死んだ。

. Izuna Gongen, Iizuna no Gongen 飯網の権現 .


.......................................................................... Nagasaki長崎県 ......................................
南高來郡 愛野村 Aino

darashi ダラシ Darashi
If hunters walk alont the mountain pass, they might get bewitched by the Darashi. They can suddenly not walk any more and crawl around on all fours.
Once this happened to a hunter, but he could make it to a tea shop nearby where he ate two bowls of buckwheat and was soon healed.

Darashi だらし is a Yokai of Nagasaki.
(9 to explore)

. Hidarugami ヒダル神 The Hunger Gods.
In Kitakyushu, it is known as the Darashi (ダラシ).
(41 to explore)


.......................................................................... Niigata 新潟県 ......................................

kitsune 狐 fox
There are three old foxes 三老狐の女狐 who bewitch people to run around the buckwheat fields three times or let them see water puddles to jump in. They also change into humans and steal the lunch boxes of farmers. But they are afraid of dogs.

Sometimes a bewitched person walks around the buckwheat field with the robes all tucked up high, thinking he is walking in a river. The foxes also eat their aburaage 油揚げ Tofu lunch.


.......................................................................... Okayama 岡山県 ......................................
英田郡 Aida district 大原町 Ohara

furudanuki 古狸 the old badger
Once upon a time on a rainy evening, an old man came to the temple. The priest was just grilling black stones, and he asked the man where he lived. Then the old man asked to stay over night, since it was already dark. The old monk had already eaten, but he had some Soba dumplings left and offered to grill them on the blue stone. Then suddenly he threw one hot stone at the knee of the old man. The old man shouted and run away very fast.
Next morning the priest found a hole in the valley, where an old Badger was dead from burning wounds. And it was not burned at the knee, but in the genitals.
The name of this area is 玉落谷 "Valley were the Balls had fallen down".


.......................................................................... Tochigi 栃木県 ......................................
芳賀郡 Haga district 茂木町 Motegi

Soba to ward off the akki 悪鬼 bad demon on the day
. Yooka sama 八日様 Yoka Sama, the Honorable Day Eight .



.......................................................................... Tokyo 東京都 ......................................
八王子市 Hachioji

If you drink tea after eating とろろ飯 Tororomeshi or Soba, you will get a cerebral stroke 脳卒中.

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小石川諏訪町 Koishikawa Suwa District

reiken 霊剣 the magic sword
In the Soba Yokocho there lives 折原岩之助 Orihara Iwanosuke.
小石川諏訪町蕎麦切横町に住む折原岩之助が、文政9年3月16日に見た夢によると、神田小柳町あたりの道具屋に希代の霊剣があるとのことだった。同じ夢を数度みたので同月21日に道具屋を尋ねるととても古びた剣があった。そこで購入した晩の夢に、甲冑の上に白い装束を着た人物が出現し、様々な剣の徳を述べ、夢は覚めたという。小倉五郎源宗広の銘があり、470年ほど前の剣だったという。


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neko soba 猫そば -
all the fun
with GOOGLE


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -



Hokusai Manga - Eating Soba 葛飾北斎の北斎漫画

..............................................................................................................................................


. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #sobanoodles #sobalegends #buckwheatlegends -
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2015-12-16

amazake sweet rice drink legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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amazake densetsu 甘酒と伝説 legends about Amazake "sweet rice wine"

amazake, ama zake 甘酒 (あまざけ, 醴 ) amai sake
sweet alcoholic drink made from fermented rice
sake 酒 is usually an alcoholic drink, but Amazake is without alcohol and therefore loved by women and children. On cold days it is warmed up and thus a special treat.



"over night drink", hitoyazake 一夜酒(ひとよざけ)
vendor of sweet ama zake, amazake uri 甘酒売(あまざけうり)
shop selling sweet ama zake, amazakeya 甘酒屋(あまざけや)

The basic recipe for amazake has been used for hundreds of years. Kōji is added to cooled whole grain rice causing enzymes to break down the carbohydrates into simpler unrefined sugars. As the mixture incubates, sweetness develops naturally.
- snip -
amazake uri 甘酒売り vendor of Amazake in Edo
- MORE
. Japanese Drinks for all seasons .
- Introduction -


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Various regions have legends about an old mountain woman (hag) who likes Amazake or comes to sell Amazake.

山姥 Yamanba,鬼婆 Onibaba

牛方山姥の昔話は牛方もしくは馬方、魚売が山姥もしくは鬼、山男、鬼婆に荷や牛を食われ、隠れた一軒家の天井裏に隠れていると山姥が入ってきて餅を焼いているのを牛方が天井から棒で突いて食べ、山姥が沸かした甘酒も飲んでしまう。そして山姥は釜もしくは唐櫃、風呂釜の中で山姥が寝たところに熱湯を入れるか、下から火をたいて煮殺すというものである。

牛方が塩鯖を運んでいるときに山姥に襲われ、鯖も牛も食われてしまう。牛方は木に登って隠れていたが、その姿が沼に映っていた。その姿めがけ、山姥は沼夜涛に飛び込んだので、牛方はその間に逃げて、一軒家に隠れた。そこは山姥の家で、牛方は山姥の餅や甘酒を飲んでしまったが、山姥はそれを火の神の仕業と思い、唐櫃の中で寝た。山姥は牛飼いが錐で蓋に穴をあける音を聞いて「明日は天気だけで、きりきり虫が鳴かあや」といいながら殺された。

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amazake babaa 甘酒婆 Amazake hag
She comes in various versions.

amazake babaa yokai 妖怪 甘酒婆 as a Yokai monster


source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/tengoqu

Amazake-babaa 甘酒婆 "Amazake hag" is an old woman yokai from the folklore of Miyagi and Aomori.
She comes to the doors of houses at late night asking for amazake in a child like voice, but if anyone answers they fall ill. It was said that to keep her away, a cedar leaf is placed in the doorway.

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甘酒婆地蔵尊 Amazake Baba Jizo


source : fank10jasu/archives

甘酒婆地蔵尊 Amazake Baba Jizo
東京都文京区小日向 - Nichirin-Ji Tokyo 日輪寺

The Jizo statue of this temple is modelled like the old woman who sold Amazake at the access road to the temple.
She was suffering from a severe cough and made a wish:
"After my death I wand to become a Deity to cure Cough 咳の神 and help healing all the other people with this ailment."
So a statue was made of the woman but seen as a Jizo statue.

There is also a statue of Fudo Myo-O at her side:




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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.................................................................. Aomori 青森県 ....................................................................

. hoosoogami 疱瘡の神 deity of smallpox .
and amazake babaa 甘酒婆 Amazake hag


.................................................................. Chiba 千葉県 ....................................................................
成田市 Narita

January 24 is the festival of Atago Gongen. Therefore every month on the 24 people abstain from using Sake, vinegar or Amazake, because this deity does not like them.

. Atago Gongen 愛宕権現 .
avatar (Gongen) of Buddhist bodhisattva Jizo Bosatsu



.................................................................. Fukuoka 福岡県 ....................................................................
久留米市 Kurume

gama, kuudo 蟇,クワド
蟇のことをこの地方ではワクドと言うが、これは殺した者にすぐ憑いたり祟ったりする。蟇に憑かれると耳をくすぐられ、あるいは耳の中に入って甘酒を醸される。特に白い荒神さんの蟇であると目や耳を不自由にされる。頭の毛をむしり取るものもあって、蟇に憑かれた者は蟇の形になって死ぬ。


.................................................................. Miyagi 宮城県 ....................................................................
大和町 Taiwa

. amazake Jizoo 甘酒地蔵 Jizo and sweet rice wine .


amazake baba 甘酒婆 Amazake Hag
She knocks at the door of houses at midnight, asking for Amazake in the voice of a child, but if anyone answers, they become ill. To keep her away, a cedar leaf is hung in the doorway.


.................................................................. Niigata 新潟県 ....................................................................
Sado, 相川町 Aikawa

Chinju Kitano Jinja no Saijin Tenjin 鎮守北野神社の祭神天神
The festival for the Protector Deity at the Kitano Jinja is on September 25. Tenjin Sama leaves early for Izumo to meet with the Deities of Japan and to help making Sake. So people offer Amazake and 赤飯 Red Ritual Rice on this day.

. Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真 天神 Tenjin Legends .

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onibaba 鬼婆 Onibaba, the Demon Hag
Once upon a time
grandfather went to town to sell some things. In the mountains he met Onibaba, who took away all his luggage.
The next day he went there again and brought her rice cakes and Amazake. After she had eaten them, she fell into hot water and he killed her. So he could take revenge on this enemy.


.................................................................. Okayama 岡山県 ....................................................................
真庭郡 Maniwa

mikogami ミコ神 / 御子神 Honorable Child Deity
The Mikogami of Okayama like Amazake, therefore people bring offerings to their shrines every time they prepare some.
If she is of bad temper for some reason, she can cause wounds and other diseases for the children. To appease her, people bring Amazake to the shrine.

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川上村 Kawakami

mikogami ミコ神さん
ミコ神さんは納戸にいる神様で、奥に棚をしてお宮を祀り、中に幣を入れてある。女の安産、月忌を守る。甘酒を供える。月の13日が縁日で、正月には他の神様と同じように飾りつけをする。祀り方が悪いと、機嫌を悪くして出ものを出す。出ものが出たときには他の家に移りたがっているといい、法印さんに拝んでもらって幣だけを移す。祭りをきちんとしていれば家にいてもらえる。

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美甘村 Mikamo

ooyama mikogami オオヤマミコ神
in Mikamo village, Kuroda Jinja 黒田神社 Shrine.
美甘村美甘の入夏家は現在黒田神社の神主である。ミコ神は女の神で子供を好む。2階に祀ってある。オオヤマミコ神と呼び、旧11月13日が祭日で、甘酒を作り子供に飲ませるが、ミコ神には飲ませない。当日一番早くミコ神に参った子供は願い事がかなうという。近所の子供にできものができた時にはオオヤマミコ神を拝みに来る。


. mikogami 御子神 Honorable Child Deity .


.................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県 ....................................................................
Hamamatsu, 龍山町 Tatsuyama

- Some local customs, some refere to the Asian zodiac:
It is not allowed to grow nuts or grapes in the garden.
Miso should not be made on u no hi 卯の日, the day of the rabbit (hare).
Amazake should not be made on tatsu no hi 辰の日, the day of the dragon.



.................................................................. Yamanashi 山梨県 ....................................................................

amazake banbaa アマザケバンバァ Amazake hag
She comes to the village late every night, knocks at the doors and wants to sell Amazake or real Sake.
Therefore many people put a poster at their kitchen door, saying they do not like these drinks.
Then she will stop visiting.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -




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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #amazake #sweetricewine #amazakebaa -
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2015-06-20

Food and Drink

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. ABC List of Contents .
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Food and Drink in the Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代


CLICK for more photos !

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Following the Jōmon period, Japanese society shifted from semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural society. This was the period in which rice cultivation began, having been introduced by China. Rice was commonly boiled plain and called gohan or meshi, and, as cooked rice has since been the preferred staple of the meal, the terms are used as synonyms for the word "meal". Peasants often mixed millet with rice, especially in mountainous regions where rice did not proliferate.

During the Kofun period, Chinese culture was introduced into Japan from the Korean Peninsula. As such, Buddhism became influential on Japanese culture. After the 6th century, Japan directly pursued the imitation of Chinese culture of the Tang dynasty. It was this influence that marked the taboos on the consumption of meat in Japan. In 675 AD, Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on the consumption of cattle, horses, dogs, monkeys, and chickens during the 4th-9th months of the year; to break the law would mean a death sentence. Monkey was eaten prior to this time, but was eaten more in a ritualistic style for medicinal purposes. Chickens were often domesticated as pets,  while cattle and horses were rare and treated as such. A cow or horse would be ritually sacrificed on the first day of rice paddy cultivation, a ritual introduced from China. Emperor Temmu's decree, however, did not ban the consumption of deer or wild boar, which were important to the Japanese diet at that time.

The 8th century saw many additional decrees made by emperors and empresses banning the killing of any animals. In 752 AD, Empress Kōken decreed a ban on fishing, but made a promise that adequate rice would be given to fishermen whose livelihood would have otherwise been destroyed. In 927 AD, regulations were enacted that stated that any government official or member of nobility that ate meat was deemed unclean for three days and could not participate in Shinto observances at the imperial court.

It was also the influence of Chinese cultures that brought chopsticks to Japan early in this period. Chopsticks at this time were used by nobility at banquets; they were not used as everyday utensils however, as hands were still commonly used to eat. Metal spoons were also used during the 8th and 9th centuries, but only by the nobility. Dining tables were also introduced to Japan at this time. Commoners used a legless table called a oshiki, while nobility used a lacquered table with legs called a zen. Each person used his own table. Lavish banquets for the nobility would have multiple tables for each individual based upon the number of dishes presented.

Upon the decline of the Tang dynasty in the 9th century, Japan made a move toward its individuality in culture and cuisine. The abandonment of the spoon as a dining utensil – which was retained in Korea – is one of the marked differences, and commoners were now eating with chopsticks as well. Trade continued with China and Korea, but influence en masse from outside of Japan would not be seen again until the 19th century. The 10th and 11th centuries marked a level of refinement of cooking and etiquette found in the culture of the Heian nobility. Court chefs would prepare many of the vegetables sent as tax from the countryside. Court banquets were common and lavish; garb for nobility during these events remained in the Chinese style which differentiated them from the plain clothes of commoners.

The dishes consumed after the 9th century included grilled fish and meat (yakimono), simmered food (nimono), steamed foods (mushimono), soups made from chopped vegetables, fish or meat (atsumono), jellied fish (nikogori) simmered with seasonings, sliced raw fish served in a vinegar sauce (namasu), vegetables, seaweed or fish in a strong dressing (aemono), and pickled vegetables (tsukemono) that were cured in salt to cause lactic fermentation. Oil and fat were avoided almost universally in cooking. Sesame oil was used, but rarely, as it was of great expense to produce.

Documents from the Heian nobility note that fish and wild fowl were common fare along with vegetables. Their banquet settings consisted of a bowl of rice and soup, along with chopsticks, a spoon, and three seasonings which were salt, vinegar and hishio, which was a fermentation of soybeans, wheat, sake and salt. A fourth plate was present for mixing the seasonings to desired flavor for dipping the food.
The four types of food present at a banquet consisted of dried foods (himono), fresh foods (namamono), fermented or dressed food (kubotsuki), and desserts (kashi).
Dried fish and fowl were thinly sliced (e.g. salted salmon, pheasant, steamed and dried abalone, dried and grilled octopus), while fresh fish, shellfish and fowl were sliced raw in vinegar sauce or grilled (e.g. carp, sea bream, salmon, trout, pheasant). Kubotsuki consisted of small balls of fermented sea squirt, fish or giblets along with jellyfish and aemono. Desserts would have included Chinese cakes, and a variety of fruits and nuts including pine nuts, dried chestnuts, acorns, jujube, pomegranate, peach, apricot, persimmon and citrus. The meal would be ended with sake.
- source : wikipedia -



source : bunkatorekisi.blog



History of Soy Sauce and Miso
Soy sauce originally comes from Chinese jiang. It is believed that it was brought to Japan in the Nara period. After that, it developed independently in Japan.
In the Heian period, jiang became popular and came to be a daily necessity.
The Buddhist priest, Kakushin of the Shinshu area brought the recipe for miso to Japan from Song, China in 1250.
- reference -

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Tea's Transmission to Japan and Its Entry into Japanese Culture
平安時代とお茶


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During the Nara and Heian periods, many envoys were sent to Tang-dynasty China. On several occasions, these envoys were accompanied by Japan's leading Buddhist scholars, including Saicho, Kukai and Eichu. These Buddhist monks brought back with them tea seeds from Tang China, which are said to be the origin of tea in Japan.
In the early Heian Period, Emperor Saga is said to have encouraged the drinking and cultivation of tea in Japan. Tea drinking was first referred to in Japanese literature in 815 in the Nihon Koki (Later Chronicles of Japan), recording that Eichu invited Emperor Saga to Bonshakuji temple, where he was served tea.
At this time, tea was extremely valuable and only drunk by imperial court nobles and Buddhist monks.
- source : www.itoen.co.jp/eng -



source : www.kyoyuhonpo.com

Tea cups with motives from the Heian Period, 源氏物語 Genji Monogatari.

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- - - - - - From the Washoku Blog - - - - -


. chisa 苣 Chisa lettuce .


Ganjitsu no Sechi-E 元日節会 Audience and Reception of Politicians
Osechi-ryōri (御節料理 or お節料理) are traditional Japanese New Year foods.
The tradition started in the Heian Period.
- - - - - . Daijin ke no daikyoo 大臣家大饗 First banquet of the Ministers .
On this day an envoy from the imprial court, 蘇甘栗使 soamaguri no tsukai, is also welcomed.
He brought an old version of butter, 牛酪 gyuuraku, and dried chestnuts kachiguri 搗栗.
- - - - - . New Year Food - Introduction .


. hanami bento 花見弁当 lunch for blossom viewing .

. hasshuu no karagashi 八種の唐菓子, 八種唐菓子 eight famous snack from China .

. hocho do 庖丁道 the way of the kitchen knife .
The Art of Slicing Fish and Fowl in Medieval Japan.


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .
During the Heian period, on two days of the year (on the 11th day of the sixth and 12th month) on the day of the moon festival (tsukinami no matsuri 月次祭) , the deity Amaterasu Omikami would take part of the meal together with the emperor (shingojiki 神今食) in a special hall of the imperial grounds in Nara.


. kajikibashi 鹿食箸 chopstsicks to eat "mountain meat" .
from Suwa Shrine, Nagano

. karashina 芥菜 brown mustard plant .
ha karashina 葉からしな, hatakena はたけな

. koimo, ko-imo 小芋 "small taro potato" .
Especially used for dished during the full moon party time in Autumn.

. koiwashi 小いわし "small sardines", Japanese anchovy .
iwashi no atama yaki イワシの頭焼き (yakigashi 焼嗅がし) : This is an old ritual since the Heian period.

. Kyoosai 京菜 Kyoto Vegetables .
Many are cultivated since the Heian period and a lot grow in temple gardens.


. manyoogayu 万葉粥 rice gruel a la Manyo-shu .
Served at the great shrine Kasuga Taisha

. mozuku もずく(水雲/海蘊) seaweed .
It is already mentioned in literature from the Heian period, written as 毛都久.
It is said when you wash your hands with mozuku it keeps women's hands soft and moist.


. o-chazuke お茶漬け rice with a topping .
This dish first became popular in the Heian period, when water was most commonly poured over rice.

. Omawari, o-mawari おまわり- Food from Heiankyō 平安京 -
..... one dish of rice was surrounded by up to six small plates with side dishes.

. Onigiri, o-nigiri (御握り; おにぎり) Omusubi (おむすび, O-musubi) rice balls .
In the Heian period, rice was also made into small rectangular shapes called tonjiki (頓食; とんじき), so that they could be piled onto a plate and easily eaten.


. san-niku ryori 山肉料理 "Mountain Meat Cuisine" .
Meat from four-legged animals was not allowed for the pious Buddhist to eat and also not approved in Shinto. But there were exceptions, especially for ill people and for the poor mountain villages and hunter areas, since the Heian period.

. semai 施米 (せまい) alms of rice .

. Shibazuke しば漬け / 柴漬け Perilla pickles with eggplant .
from Ohara, Kyoto. Nishiri. Jakko-I寂光院, Kenrei Mon-In 建礼門院

. Soy sauce 醤油 and hishio 醤 .


. tachibana, Ukon no tachibana 右近の橘 Japanese tachibana citrus fruit .

. tamamo 玉藻 gemweed .
The one at Minume 敏馬 is already mentioned in the old poems of the Heian period. / Nojima no saki 野嶋の崎.

. toso enmei san 屠蘇延命散 medicine to prolong life . - toso 屠蘇 ritual ricewine
It was introduced from China in the Heian period for the Emperor Saga Tenno 嵯峨天皇 and been offered at court on the third day of the New Year.

. tsukimi dango 月見団子 dumplings for moon viewing .
It's said that this moon viewing custom was introduced to Japan from China during Nara and Heian period.


. ubatama, nubatama, mubatama 射干玉 / 鳥羽玉 leopard flower .
“nuba” means black.
When ancient Japanese Waka poets described the blackness of a night, or a woman's voluptuous hair, they used this black berries as a beautiful image and put “Nubatama” as a introduction of those night blackness or hair blackness.

. Yaseuma やせうま from Oita 大分 .
Thick, wide, fat wheat noodles - - - and a legend about the woman YASE.

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Neujahrsessen bei Hofe

Während der Heian-Zeit
etablierten sich viele Neujahrs-Bräuche aus China bei Hofe in Kyoto, die sich zum Teil bis heute erhalten haben. Das „Neujahrs-Festessen“ des Tennoo zusammen mit den Adeligen (ganjitsu no sechi-e 元日節会 ) fand am ersten Januar statt.
Die „große Einladung zum Neujahrs-Festessen“ (hare no gozen 晴の御膳), bei der auch Politiker zur Audienz geladen werden, kam nach der Meiji-Reformation hinzu. Diese Audienz findet an einem der drei Neujahrstage in der Phönixhalle des Kaiserpalastes in Tokyo statt.

Die meisten Speisen, die bei diesen Zeremonien angeboten werden, stammen aus dem alten chinesischen Hofritual. In China wurden bereits die „acht Konfekte“ (hasshuu no karagashi 八種の唐菓子) serviert. Sie bestanden aus Reis- oder Weizenmehl, das zu glückverheißenden Formen geknetet wurde. Sie waren gefüllt mit gehacktem Fleisch oder Gemüse und wurden vor dem Essen frittiert. Diese Snacks wurden auch „Früchte“ (kudamono 果物) genannt, da sie auch Nüsse und andere Früchte des Waldes enthielten.

Für Soßen wurden Essig, Reiswein, Salz und Sojasauce gemischt.
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Eine weitere Spezialität zum Neujahrsfest sind die flachen Mochi aus Reismehl, Sojabohnenmehl, rotem Bohnenmus und einer Stange japanischer Schwarzwurzel (hagatame no mochi 歯固の餅 はがためのもち). Sie sind rautenförmig und sind mit ihrer rosaroten Farbe glückverheißend, daher werden sie auch auch „Kirschblüten-Mochi“ genannt.
- snip -
Rettich ist ein beliebtes Wintergemüse und wird seit der Heian-Zeit in der japanischen Poesie besungen. In dem Raum, wo die „Zeremonie zum Stärken der Zähne“ stattfindet, liegt auf dem runden Spiegel-Mochi (kagamimochi) meist noch ein Rettich, der nach den Festtagen ebenfalls in einer Suppe verspeist wird.

. Gabi Greve - Neujahrsessen bei Hofe .


Zu Beginn der Heian-Zeit verbreitete sich ein neuer Brauch, der heute aus der japanischen Esskultur nicht mehr wegzudenken ist, nämlich das Trinken von Grünem Tee. Die ersten Teeplantagen wurden in der Gegend von Nara angelegt. Für die normale Bevölkerung war allerdings das reine Wasser, das es überall in Japan reichlich umsonst gab, das einzige Getränk. Bis heute sind viele ländliche Einzelhöfe und auch alte Stadtfamilien stolz auf ihre guten Brunnen und frisches Wasser wird bis heute kostenlos in jedem Restaurant angeboten, meist auch eine Tasse grüner Tee nach der Mahlzeit. Auch die Zubereitungen mit Braten und Frittieren fanden ihren Weg nach Japan.

Alte Texte von Westjapan aus der Heian-Zeit berichten von der Abgabe der Steuern in Form von Sushi aus fermentiertem Reis mit Fisch.

. Gabi Greve - Japanisches Essen im Laufe der Geschichte .

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- Reference in Japanese 平安時代 食べ物  -

- Reference in Japanese 平安時代 料理  -

- Reference in English -


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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #heianfoodanddrink #heianfood #heiandrink -
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