Showing posts with label - - - History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - History. Show all posts

2019-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, the oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


. Legends and tales 伝説 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


. Asuka Kiyomihara Palace 飛鳥 清見原 .

auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise


. Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war - 672 .
Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno


. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

kinri 禁裏 / 禁中 / 御所 living quarters of the emperor
- kinri sama 禁裏様 Emperor

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. “Time in Medieval Japan” - symposium 2018 .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

. Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka .
and - Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #heianabclist #abclist #korea -
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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2019-06-24

kaido highway legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
. Kaido 街道 Highways - ABC Index .
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Kaido 街道と伝説 Legends about the old Kaido highways

. Kaido: The Ancient Highways of Japan 日本の街道 .
- Introduction -

Japan developed a nationwide network of roads and highways already in the 7th century to carry things on foot, horseback, and wheeled traffic and to transport goods between towns and villages, the sea and the mountain communities.
The major roads, called Kaido, started from the old capital in Kyoto.



. shukuba 宿場 post station, postal station along the highways .


. Edo Gokaidoo 江戸五街道 Gokaidō - five highways starting from Edo .


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. Yokai and Yurei Kaido 街道の妖怪 - 幽霊 monsters and ghosts .





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. Miyagi Prefecture 宮城県 and Kaido Highway Legends .
Aramakiyama Kaido 荒巻山街道
Azuma Kaido 東街道 - Sendai
Hippo Kaido 筆甫街道
Iwadeyama Kaido 岩出山街道
Kakuda Kaido 角田街道
Kawasaki Kaido 川崎街道
Kiso Kaido 木曾街道 - Sendai
Oshu Kaido 奥州街道
Sasaya Kaido 笹谷街道
Sekiyama Kaido 関山街道
Shiogama Kaido 塩釜街道
Shizugawa Kaido 志津川街道
Toho Kaido 東方街道


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......................................................................................... Abe Kaido 安倍街道

. Abekawa 安倍川 / 阿部川 River Abekawa, Abegawa - Shizuoka .





......................................................................................... Awa Kaido 阿波街道

. byoonin batake 病人畑 field of ill people .




......................................................................................... Chichibu Kaido 秩父街道

. 秩父街道の伝説と昔話 Tales from the Chichibu Highway .
笛吹川 River Fuefukigawa - Kobo Daishi and the spotted Yamame trouts
kyojin 巨人 a giant making mountains in Saitama




......................................................................................... Chuuma Kaido 中馬街道 Chuma Kaido
chuuma no michi 中馬のみち Chuma "road for transport horses"

. amaoto, ama-oto 雨音 the sound of rain .
and a zatoo 座頭 blind minstrel




......................................................................................... Futakuchi Kaido 二口街道

. The brothers Banji and Banzaburo 万二万三郎 .





......................................................................................... Gosaisho Kaido 御斎所街道
福島県 Fukushima 郡山市 Koriyama city 湖南町 Konan machi town
Also called Ishikawa Kaido 石川街道
From いわき市 Iwaki city in Fukushima to 石川町 Ishikawa town.
It connected 白河 Shirakawa, 棚倉 Tanagura and 須賀川 Sukawata from the 中通り inland Road with 平 Taira and 小名浜 Onahama on the 浜通り Hamadori coastal road.

御斎所峠(ごさいしょとうげ) Gosaisho Toge Pass, more than 1770 m high.
located in Fukushima 福島県いわき市遠野町根岸-いわき市田人町(たびとまち)才鉢(さいばち)



. bakeneko 化け猫, 化猫 a monster cat .
The Ishikawa Kaido was crossing the pass ごさんしょ峠 / 御斎所峠 Gosansho Toge. On its top was a small hut to use in emergencies, where an old couple lived.
They made their cat kill people and took their money.
One day a medicine merchant from 須賀川 Sukagawa came to stay. He was saved by a kamo 鴨 duck from the malicious cat.
When the old couple found out that the cat could not kill the merchant, they took it and banged its head with a metal pipe stick. The cat bit the two in their throats and killed them.
Then the cat gave all the money to the merchant and left. He soon became the richest merchant in Sukagawa and venerated the cat as his protector deity.





......................................................................................... Hachinohe Kaido 八戸街道

. A fox getting fish . . . or not .
Iwate, Kunohe 九戸郡

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. A 六部 Rokubu pilgrim on the Hama Kaido 浜街道 .
and the monster cat 大天婆 Daiten Baba in Kesennuma





......................................................................................... Hijiyama Kaido 比治山街道

. Jizoden 地蔵田 The Jizo Field .
Hiroshima




......................................................................................... Hyakuri Kaido 百里街道
茨城県 Ibaraki 行方市 Namegata city 百里 Hyakuri hamlet
via 百里ヶ岳 Mount Hyakurigatake, 931 m in Fukui ?

furudanuki 古狸 old Tanuki badger
In 常陸国の麻生の里 the area of Asao in the old Hitachi domaine there are seven roads.
Once a samurai walked on the Hyakuri Kaido in the evening, when he saw a noble woman with long hair walk in front of him. The two walked together for a while, but then he took out his sword and killed her.
When the farmers went to the place next morning, they found an old Tanuki with long hair dead on the road.

. tanuki 狸 racoon dog, badger legends .





......................................................................................... Iiyama Kaido 飯山街道
新潟県 Niigata

. itachi いたち weasel legend .
and ryuu, ryū 龍 竜 伝説 Ryu - a dragon legends




......................................................................................... Ise Kaido 伊勢街道

. o-kuwa sama オクワ様 / 鍬 venerable hoe .






......................................................................................... Kamakura Kaido 鎌倉街道

. magarimatsu 曲がり松 the bent pine tree .




......................................................................................... Kasagi Kaido 笠置街道

. Kasagidera 笠置寺 Kasagi-Dera - Kyoto .
and a white deer and a Tengu




......................................................................................... Kawagoe Kaido 川越街道

. enoki 榎 nettle tree in 上板橋 Kami-Itabashi .





......................................................................................... Kijo Kaido 木城街道

. kitsune 狐 a fox legend .





......................................................................................... Koshu Kaido 甲州街道


. The old demon hag from Adachigahara in Nihonmatsu 二本松の安達が原の鬼ババア .




......................................................................................... Kotaki Kaido 小滝街道

. Legends from 南陽市 Nanyo City - Inari fox and more .
Yamagata



......................................................................................... Kumano Kaido 熊野街道


奈良県 Nara 吉野郡 Yoshino, 川上村

hidarigami ヒダリ神
ヒダリガミは祀る人がおらず、お茶ももらえぬ神である。熊野街道にはあちこちにいて、通る者は腹が減るとたまらなくなる。




......................................................................................... Matsumoto Kaido 松本街道

長野県 Nagano
kitsune 狐 fox
夜明け前、薄暗い林の中の近道を歩いていたら、足元から急に黒いものが飛び出した。それから道に迷ってしまった。腰をおろして目をつぶって気を静めてから目を開けてみると、すぐそばに松本街道があった。



......................................................................................... Mikuni Kaido 三国街道

新潟県 Niigata 長岡市 Nagaoka
katame no sakana 片目の魚 fish with one eye
高彦根神社の東、昔の三国街道を少し離れた田の中に、10坪ばかりの沼があったが、この沼は神社の春秋の祭りの際に神に献じる魚の御加持が池の跡で、この池の魚はいずれも片目だったという。明治ころまではその池はあったが、今は田になっている。



......................................................................................... Mitsu Kaido 三津街道

愛媛県 Ehime 松山市 Matsumoto city
O-Mitsu tanuki おみつ狸
昔三津街道の出入り口を三津口といっていた。辻番所があった。佐兵衛じいさんが雨の降る冬の夜、辻版をしているとべっぴんの娘が現れた。傘もささず、友禅の振り袖も長く腰のダラリの帯はしっぽのようにも見えたので、じいさんは狸と見破った。ナワでしばっていぶすと、雑魚を狙ったおみつ狸だった。



......................................................................................... Nara Kaido 奈良街道

京都府 Kyoto
oonyuudoo 大入道 Onyudo, O-Nyudo
六地蔵では奈良街道沿いによく狸が出た。林千賀さん(明治四十三年生まれ)は、子どものころ近所の青年が、夜になってからこの街道の町はずれで大入道に会った、と青い顔をして逃げ帰ってきたのを覚えているという。
- - - - -
tanuki 狸
林さんが小さい頃、奈良街道沿いの道で、夜間通行人が持っている魚をよく狸にとられた話を聞いている。




......................................................................................... Noneyama Kaido 野根山街道
- - - - - also called 宿屋杉のみち Yadoyasugi no michi, 岩佐関所のみち Iwasa Sekisho no michi

高知県 Kochi 安芸郡 奈半利町 - - 野根山街道の民話 by 前田年雄

kosodate yuurei 子育て幽霊
昔お由里さんという女性が庄屋に縁付き、子供が生まれたが、肺病にかかり、実家に帰されて死んだ。その後、夜中に庄屋の門を叩く者がおり、子供を呼ぶ声がし、その声がすると庄屋の赤ん坊は目を覚まし、乳を吸うしぐさをするということが毎晩続いたという。世の人はお由里さんの幽霊が乳を飲ましに来ると噂しあったという。
- - - - -
inoshishi
山仕事からの帰り、山犬といのししが食い合いしているところを見た。翌朝同じところまで来ると、骨だけになってまだ食い合っていた。
- - - - -
ookami オオカミ wolf
妊婦が装束峠の杉の下で産気づいた。集まる狼を通りかかった飛脚が倒し、佐喜浜の鍛冶屋の嬶と呼ばれた大狼に怪我をさせた。翌日飛脚が佐喜浜の鍛冶屋を訪ねると、嬶は狼の姿となって飛びついてきたので切り殺した。床下には人骨が積もっていた。
- - - - -
tanuki 狸
時期はずれの大名行列を不審に思った村人が、尾が見えていると叫ぶと古狸が正体をあらわした。村人は今度は自分が行列に化けてやると告げ、本物の大名行列の日を狸に伝えた。狸は信じてやってきて、行列に尾が見えていると叫び、無礼打ちにされた。
- - - - -
warai ga 笑い栂 laughing moth
嘉永年間、伐木夫が入山の途中突然頭上で「深山に居る」という叫び声を聞いた。驚いて下山し、途中の木の下で休んでいると、木の上で大きな笑い声をきいた。無我夢中で逃げ帰ると、足の指がことごとく切断されていた。それ以来この栂の木は「笑い栂」と呼ばれる。



......................................................................................... . Ome Kaido 青梅街道 Aome Kaido .

kootsuu jikoo 交通事故 traffic accident
Once upon a time a woman was killed in a traffic accident on the crossroads of the Ome Kaido.
A little later a woman in a white robe (as dead people are dressed for a funeral) appeared at the gas station and waved for a taxi.
When the taxi driver reached the destination, he looked at the back seat but there was nobody, only the seat was rather wet.




......................................................................................... Oyama Kaido 大山街道 (Ooyama)

. Kappa カッパ the Water Goblin .
at the bridge the bridge 間門橋 / 馬門橋 Makadobashi



......................................................................................... Sanin Kaido San-In, San'in 山陰街道

京都府 Kyoto
tsuchinoko hebi 槌の子蛇
槌の子蛇を見たという報告は、洛北雲ケ畑の薬師峠付近、沢の池、山陰街道の老ノ坂峠付近の王子部落の人が、毎年見るという話。




......................................................................................... Sanshu Kaido 三州街道
shio no Michi 塩の道 Salt road / 長野県 Nagano

kuda クダ
160年ほど前、三州街道を上ってきた旅人が座光寺か市田あたりで聞いた話を書き残した。それによると、クダという狐に似た獣は家や人にとりついて悩ませるのだという。






......................................................................................... Senboji Kaido 千坊寺街道

富山県 Toyama 婦負郡
Kannon Sama 観音様
森田に観音様がある観音様は、昔沢連に居られた。宿坊の松田ニゾウの枕元に現れて、千坊寺街道の富崎の少し手前にある森田に行きたい、と言われたので、観音様を連れて行き、森田の人と街道の途中であって観音様の受け渡しをした。その場所を仏坂という。その観音様は今は森田の観音堂にあり、国宝になっている。



......................................................................................... Shibata Kaido 新発田街道
.......................................................................
新潟県 Niigata 東蒲原郡 阿賀町
kitsune 狐 fox
德川時代、伊達政宗に滅ぼされたカナガニトウトオミノカミの遺臣淸野孫右衛門が漆沢集落に来て、肝煎になった。その五代目が武家復興を月山権現に念じて二十一日の願掛けをした。途中、痩せた狐の親子に赤飯を振る舞ってやった。満願の日、德川の家老オニコがお墨付きを持って迎えに来て、そのまま道中した。道中は犬止めの禁が出た。新発田街道を通って聖篭で夜が明けると、行列はなく槍だと思っていたのは萱であった。孫右衛門はそのまま落ち延び、息子ともう独り着いていったものは帰ってきた。




......................................................................................... Shinshu Kaido 信濃街道

群馬県 Gunma 前橋市 Maebashi city 亀里町
otooka no yome-iri オトウカの嫁取り / キツネ fox
小雨のしとしと降る晩、極楽寺の裏のジョウノヤマのオトウカ(キツネ)が信濃街道を、提灯を点け列を作って嫁取り行列をして歩いた。小学校の老杉のところまで行くと見えなくなったという。人間が近付くと消えてしまう。





......................................................................................... Sumiyoshi Kaido 住吉街道

大阪府 Osaka 住吉区 Sumiyoshi ward
shironezumi 白鼠 white mouse
住吉街道茶屋村より南むくげのうちでは、大きさが猫ほどもある鼠が出て人に喰い付き、その小犬が恐れるほどの勢いは止まるところを知らなかった。そこで人々はこれを殺して埋め、しるしの石を置いた。これが今は住吉墓地に併合させられた南海鉄道阪堺線の勝間停留所の東側の墓地にあった鼠の塚である。



......................................................................................... Takeuchi Kaido 竹内街道
-横大路 Yoko-Oji(大道)/ 横大路村街道


京都府 Kyoto, Fushimi 伏見区
sekitoo 石塔 Sekito stone pagoda
下鳥羽の南、横大路村街道の東、飛鳥田神社の例祭の御旅所の傍らの榎の下に、高さ5尺程の五輪の塔婆がある。昔の村長の塔であるといい、夜な夜な怪異をなすという。あるとき勇猛の人が太刀で斬ったところ、血の跡が残ったという。



......................................................................................... Tokuyama Kaido 徳山街道


岐阜県 Gifu 藤橋村
yasha hebi 夜叉蛇
西杉原の村はずれの徳山街道にそったところにある沼に夜叉蛇が住んでいる。沼に連なる池を埋め立てたるときにたたりを恐れて経塚をつくった。この塚を掘ると鶴見がつぶれるといわれている。
- omiyage kaidoo おみやげ街道 souvenir Kaido in Tokuyama


......................................................................................... Tonosama Kaido 殿様街道

岐阜県 Gifu 恵那郡 山岡町
okuri ookami 送り狼
殿様街道の夕立山の峠で、おばあさんが茶店を閉めて帰ろうとすると、決まって一匹の狼がついてきて送ってくれる。里につくと駄賃に餅を与えた。この時絶対に後ろを見てはいけない。





......................................................................................... Wada Kaido 和田街道

from 東京都八王子市 Hachioji in Tokyo to 神奈川県相模原市 Sagamihara in Kanagawa

oni 鬼 demon
源頼光 Minamoto no Yorimitsu (948 - 1021) wanted to kill demons fro Oeyama and was on his way, clad as a yamabushi 山伏 mountain priest, walking along the Wada Kaido.
At the village of 上川口村 Kamikawaguchi he asked a farmer named 孫八 Magohachi to show him the way. He was looking for the home of the local demon. On the way he met the deity 三貴神 Sankishi / Sankishin, who let him to the Shrine 鬼獄稲荷神社 Ontake Inari Jinja in 大江山 Oeyama. There he made a vow to fight the demon with 鬼毒酒 poisonous Sake and finally could kill the Demon.

. 源頼光と坂田金時 Minamoto Yorimitsu and Sakata Kintoki .

Wadajuku 和田宿 is the 28th postal station along the 中山道 Nakasendo Highway.



......................................................................................... Yotsukaido 四街道

Yotsukaidō is a city located in Chiba Prefecture.

In 八千代市 Yachiyo city
キツネが人を化かす
Shimoshizuhara
下志津原の先にあった陸軍の演習場では、四街道へ行く手前の春でよく迷った。狐は煙草が嫌いだから、そこで座って煙草を吸うと気持ちが落ち着く。





......................................................................................... Yuurei Kaido 幽霊街道

岐阜県 Gifu 吉城郡 国府町
幽霊街道 - Highway of the Ghosts
平湯峠から広瀬に至る尾根に何時の頃からか夜中に得体の知れぬものが通ると言われるようになった。ある時百姓が正体を確かめようと仲間とそこに向かい、夜尾根で野宿した。すると枕元を数十人の群れが「御仏米を食べているのでとれない」と言いながら通過した。


..............................................................................................................................................


- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
街道 - OK
1 古街道
7 古道 (01)


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日本の街道 歴史を巡る!
source : amazon com


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. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #kaidoo #kaido #highway #kodo #road #shukuba -
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2018-10-20

Edo Tokyo Legends Index

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Edo, Tokyo 江戸 - 東京 - と伝説 Legends

The special wards covered here are:
Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Kōtō Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Taitō Toshima



. Introduction .
. 江戸 Edo - 妖怪 Yokai monsters, 幽霊 Yurei ghosts .
. Edo Nana Fushigi 江戸七不思議 The Seven Wonders of Edo .



- collecting -
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. Adachi ku 足立区 Adachi ward .

. Arakawa ku 荒川区 Arakawa ward - "wild river" .

. Bunkyoo ku, Bunkyō 文京区 Bunkyo ward - "Literature Capital" .

. Chiyoda ku 千代田区 Chiyoda ward - "Fields of Eternity" .

. Chuuoo ku, Chūō 中央区 Chuo Ward - "Central Ward" .

. Edogawa ku 江戸川区 Edogawa ward .

. Itabashi ku 板橋区 Itabashi ward - "plank bridge" .

. Katsushika ku 葛飾区 Katsushika ward - "decorated with kuzu 葛 arrowroot " .

. Kita ku 北区 Kita ward - "Northern Ward" .

. Kootoo ku, Kōtō 江東区 Koto ward - "East River" .

. Meguro ku 目黒区 Meguro ward - "black eye Fudo " .

. Minato ku 港区 Minato ward - "Harbour ward" .

. Nakano ku 中野区 Nakano ward - "Middle Wild Field" .

. Nerima ku 練馬区 Nerima ward - "horse training" .

. Oota ku, Ōta 大田区 Ota ward - "big field" .

. Setagaya ku 世田谷区 Setagaya ward .

. Shibuya ku 渋谷区 Shibuya ward - "astringent valley" .

. Shinagawa ku 品川区 Shinagawa - "goods river" .

. Shinjuku ku 新宿区 Shinjuku Ward .

. Suginami ku 杉並区 Suginami ward - "avenue of cedar trees" .

. Sumida ku 墨田区 Sumida ward, "ink field" .

. Taitoo ku, Taitō 台東区 Taito Ward .

. Toshima ku 豊島区 Toshima ward - "Rich Island" .


. Musashi no Kuni 武蔵国 Musashi Province .
and the 22 counties of Musashi Province
豊島 Toshima, 荏原 Ebara, 橘樹 Tachibana, 久良岐 Kuraki, 都筑 Tsuzuki, 多摩 Tama, 足立 Adachi, 入間 Iruma, 比企 Hiki, 横見 Yokomi, 埼玉 Saitama, 大里 Ohsato, 男衾 Obusuma, 幡羅 Hara, 榛沢 Hanzawa, 那賀 Naka, 児玉 Kodama, 賀美 Kami and 秩父 Chichibu.




::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. animals and their legends 動物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. plants and their legends  植物と伝説 - - ABC list .

. trees and their legends  樹木, 木と伝説 - - ABC list .

. Persons, People, Personen and their legends - - ABC list .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
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2017-09-10

Jishin no Ran Tenmu Tenno

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war
civil war, “War of the Year of the Monkey", Jinshin rebellion
and 天武天皇 Emperor Tenmu Tenno




- quote -
a succession dispute in Japan which broke out in 672 following the death of 天智天皇 Emperor Tenji.
The name refers to the jinshin (壬申) or ninth year of the sixty-year Jikkan Jūnishi calendrical cycle, corresponding to the Western year 673.
Tenji had originally designated his brother, 大海人皇子 Prince Ōama, as his successor, but later changed his mind in favor of his son, 大友皇子 Prince Ōtomo / 大伴 Otomo. In the course of the violence that erupted as a result of factional rivalries, Ōtomo, having taken the throne as Emperor, took his own life after reigning for less than a year.
His uncle Ōama then succeeded to the throne as the Emperor Tenmu.
- Background -
Emperor Tenji ascended to the throne and set up a capital at Ōmi-Ōtsu (currently Ōtsu city, Shiga Prefecture). He made his best efforts for the foundation of a strong country, imitating the Tang Dynasty in China, importing the Tangs' culture, architecture and political systems. Japan had to pretend to have as much power as Tang because if Japan were regarded as weak, it was feared that the Tang might invade and conquer the country.

The next thing Tenji needed to do was to secure his successor. His Empress-consort was Yamato-hime but there were no children between the two. He had to find the right man from the sons of non-Imperial wives. Prince Takeru was the first son but he was mute by nature and died when he was seven years old. Prince Ōtomo was the next prince of the Emperor. He was a hard worker, and was very clever and intellectual. He had enough ability to be the next Emperor.

Although Ōtomo was almost perfect, his mother was of low birth. She was from the rural area landlord's family and was not Imperial-Household-born. This was a great disadvantage in considering Ōtomo to ascend to the throne.

At the same time, a younger brother of the Emperor Tenji's was as excellent as Ōtomo. He, Prince Ōama, had almost the same fitness as the Emperor, except that he was younger. His reputation was much greater than Ōtomo because he was of higher birth and was more suitable to be the next Emperor.
This was a major cause of the trouble to come.
In 670, the Emperor Tenji got sick. He realized that he couldn't live long, and he wished that, after his death, the Imperial Dynasty would pass to his son, Prince Ōtomo. Because Ōtomo's greatest rival was Ōama, the Emperor attempted to drive Ōama away. He invited the prince to his bedroom and asked if Ōama had an intention to take the throne.
If Ōama answered yes, the Emperor would have arrested and punished him as a traitor. Prince Ōama was clever enough to know his trick and answered that he had no will to succeed the throne and he wanted Ōtomo to be the next Emperor. He added that he wanted to be a monk instead of inheriting the throne and would retire to a temple in Yoshino. Because there were no reasons to punish Ōama any longer, the Emperor accepted the prince's proposal. Ōama went down to Yoshino the next day and became a monk.

The Emperor declared that Ōtomo was the next Emperor. Ōtomo summoned six subjects to the Emperor's bedroom and made them swear to help him in front of the Emperor. The Emperor nodded, and several days later he died.
.....
Prince Ōama pretended to be a monk at the temple in Yoshino, but he was looking for a chance to rise a rebellion against Ōtomo and to drive him away. He secretly collected weapons and soldiers to prepare for the coup-d'etat. In the seventh month of 672, he departed Yoshino and headed for the Palace in Ōtsu where the new Emperor Ōtomo was.
- The War
- Events in the War
- References
- MORE in the Wikipedia -



Prince Oama later became 天武天皇 Emperor Tenmu Tenno.

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Ooama no Ooji, Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno
(c. 631-686)



Tenmu - the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Tenmu's reign lasted from 673 until his death in 686.
Emperor Tenmu is the first monarch of Japan, to whom the title Tennō (Emperor of Japan) was assigned contemporaneously — not only by later generations.
Tenmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe.
..... In 671 Tenmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign the office of crown prince to become a monk. He moved to the mountains in Yoshino, Yamato Province (now Yoshino, Nara), officially for reasons of seclusion.



..... Tenmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack the capital of Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement. He left Yoshino with about 30 soldiers, but at the end of his march there were 30000. They marched through Yamato, Iga and Mino Provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province.
The army of Tenmu and the army of the young Emperor Kōbun fought in the northwestern part of Mino (nowadays Sekigahara, Gifu). Tenmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide, an incident known as the Jinshin War.
..... As might be expected, Emperor Tenmu was no less active than former-Emperor Tenji in improving the Taika military institutions. Tenmu's reign brought many changes, such as:
(1) a centralized war department was organized;
(2) the defenses of the Inner Country near the Capital were strengthened;
(3) forts and castles were built near Capital and in the western parts of Honshū—and in Kyushu;
(4) troops were reviewed; and all provincial governors were ordered to complete the collection of arms and to study tactics.
..... In 675 Emperor Tenmu banned the consumption of animal meat (horse, cattle, dogs, monkeys, birds), due to the influence of Buddhism.
..... Emperor Tenmu commissioned the "Kojiki" to be the official history of Japan in order to help strengthen imperial rule. It was completed in 712 and the "Nihon Shoki" ("Chronicles of Japan"), another manuscript of myths and legends was compiled in 720.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !




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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

enoki 榎木 nettletree, Chinese hackberry tree
In the historical record of the Heike, 源平盛衰記 Heike Seisui-Ki, there is a story about Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147 - 1198). After loosing the battle of 石橋山 Ishibashiyama he hid in the hollow of a nettletree to avoid further harm.
When Tenmu Tenno was hiding from 大伴皇子 Prince Otomo, he also hid in the hollow of a nettletree.

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Osaka 大阪府

atori no kai 獦子鳥怪 / アトリ the monstrous Atori birds cloud
Atori belong to the family of sparrows.



In the 7th year of the reign of Tenmu Tenno a huge flog of these birds cluttered the sky. They even flow up to 摂津国天満 Tenman in Settsu and this bird storm lasted for three, four days.


kanro 甘露 "honey dew"
In the 7th year of the reign of Tenmu Tenno in winter, something like a piece of white cotton came floating down from the sky. It was about 180 cm long and 22 cm wide. Blown by the wind it landed in a pine tree forest. This was named Kanro.



春すぎて 夏来にけらし 白妙(しろたへ)の 衣ほすてふ 天の香具山
haru sugite natsu ki ni kerashi shiro-tahe no koromo hosutefu ama no kaguyama

Spring has passed, and / summer has arrived, it seems.
Heavenly Mount Kagu
Where it is said, they dry robes / of the whitest mulberry!

Tr. Ewa Machotka

Poem by Jitō Tennō 持統天皇 Empress Jito (645 – 703)
She was the wife of Emperor Tenmu,

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Yoshino 吉野 - Nara 奈良県

tennyo 天女 the Heavenly Maiden
Once Tenmu Tenno played the 琴 Koto near a waterfall in Yoshino. On the cliff opposite the river something strange like a colorful cloud appeared. Looking closer it had the form of 天女 a heavenly maiden, clad in traditional layered robes, performing a ritual dance.


This is the beginning of the ritual gosetchi no maihime 五節の舞姫 Gosechi no Mai .
This imperial dance is performed to our day, even in Kabuki.


- more photos source : deep.wakuwaku-nara.com/kiyomi -

吉野川 - 天皇淵 Yoshinogawa Tenno-Buchi Tenno Riverpool at river Yoshinogawa
Nearby is the shrine 浄見原神社 Kiyomihara Jinja.

Tenmu Tenno was quite taken by the dance of the Heavenly Maiden. He composed a poem:
おとめ子が乙女さびしもからたまを袂にまきておとめさびしも


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- - - - - How the village Totsukawa got its name:
At the time when Tenmu Tenno 天武天皇 was still a prince called 大海人皇子 Oama no Miko and was hiding in Yoshino, he looked all the way South and sighed in grief:
「とほつかは」 tootsuka wa

. Totsukawa 十津川と伝説 Legends about Totsukawa village .

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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- Reference in Japanese 壬申の乱 -
- Reference in English - jishin no ran -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2017-08-23

Kofun Osaka

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
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Kofun in Osaka - Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group

Mozu kofungun (百舌鳥古墳群)
is a group of kofun or tumuli in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Furuichi kofungun (古市古墳群)
is a group of one hundred and twenty-three kofun or tumuli in Fujiidera, Osaka Prefecture,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote - Eric Johnston -
Osaka’s ancient burial mounds eyed for World Heritage status but clear explanations elude


Nintoku-tenno-ryo (the Nintoku Mausoleum) in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture, is part of the Mozu-Furuichi group of ancient burial sites known as kofun, which the government has recently put forward for World Heritage status.

he government’s decision in late July to nominate a group of 49 ancient burial sites in southern Osaka Prefecture for UNESCO World Heritage status has raised local hopes for a major boost in international prestige and tourism appeal.

But the move also raises sometimes politically sensitive questions about what the sites, called kofun, really are, who are buried within, and how to explain their history and meaning.

The nominated sites are known as the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group. They lie in two areas, in the city of Sakai just south of the city of Osaka along the coast of Osaka Bay, and in Fujiidera and Habikino in the southeast part of the prefecture. They include the 486-meter Nintoku-tenno-ryo (Nintoku Mausoleum) kofun, one of the world’s largest burial mounds.

The Mozu-Furuichi kofun are believed to have been built from the late fourth to late fifth and early sixth centuries, during the Kofun Period, which lasted for about 400 years beginning in the second half of the third century. Kofun are found over much of Honshu and Kyushu and were built in many different shapes, including keyhole, square and circular shapes. Sizes range from 10 meters to over 400 meters.

Kofun also had slightly different designs. Some were surrounded by only one moat, while others had two or three. Burial mounds might have one, two or three tiers.

The generally accepted historical explanation for the kofun mounds is that, as Japan’s ancient Yayoi culture was based on wet rice farming, settlements around rice paddies grew, and with them, local political structures known as kuni (today’s word for “country”) arose. It was these local groups that began constructing kofun.

But for whom? History and legend are mixed. The Imperial Household Agency has designated 895 sites from Yamagata to Kagoshima prefectures as Imperial mausoleums and tombs, including 188 burial mounds for senior members of the Imperial family. Citing a need to preserve the “serenity and dignity” of the tombs, entrance by the general public is forbidden and access by archaeologists is severely restricted.

In December 2014, the agency offered a guided tour to academics and reporters around a previously off-limits kofun called Tannowa Nisanzai in the far south of Osaka Prefecture, not part of the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group. While the Imperial Household Agency officially classifies it as an Imperial grave, some archaeologists believe it was built for a local chieftain.

Getting the tombs designated as a World Heritage site would likely lead to increased international interest in who, exactly, is buried in them.

It could also increase calls among archaeologists in Japan and abroad for better and more frequent access to carry out scientific studies on their contents, possibly leading to controversial discoveries and conclusions that would rewrite current official history.

For its part, Osaka Prefecture was careful in explaining the kofun in its English-language materials. Brochures and the English-language website promoting the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group introduce kofun in general as places where “people of high rank, that is the elite, in those days were buried in kofun tombs. Many powerful rulers, such as (the) great kings of the Yamato Government, had this type of mound constructed.”

In the case of the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group, the explanation in one brochure is that it “is considered to be the tomb group where tombs for the ruling elites, including great kings and their vassals, were concentrated. It is said that the differences in the scale and form of mounds as well as the structure of burial facilities depend on the social status and family background of the deceased, representing the sociopolitical hierarchy of the time.”

In many kofun of the Mozu-Furuichi Group, burial goods similar to those found in other parts of Asia, such as earthenware figures known as haniwa, bronze accessories and weapons have been excavated over the centuries.

“These excavated artifacts show the influence of the Korean Peninsula and China, proving that Japan had active exchanges with other East Asian countries at that time,” the brochure reads. The English-language website for the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group goes further, saying they could be seen “as a collection of tombs of the Kings of Wa over seven generations, together with their family members and vassals. As such, they could rightly be called the ‘Royal Tumulus Complex.’ “

Announcing its decision that the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group had been selected as Japan’s World Heritage candidate for the current fiscal year, the Cultural Affairs Agency explained its choice by saying the group is centered on Nintoku-tenno-ryo, the largest keyhole-shaped kofun in the country, considered to be the grave of an ancient Japanese king, and that the group includes many kofun of different sizes and designs, thus representative of others around Japan.

There are seven giant keyhole-shaped kofun in the group, with five having a double or triple moat. They are thought to have been built by ancient sovereigns who were later known as tenno (emperors), the official Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group website reads, adding there was plenty of evidence to suggest that these seven kofun are the tombs of ancient Japanese sovereigns.

The agency also said its decision to nominate the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group was partially based on the belief that there was room to revise the details of the bid to reflect post-selection judgments and recommendations, although what those might be were not spelled out.

Asked about revisions to the bid, Osaka Gov. Ichiro Matsui said the recommendations and concerns of the agency need to be resolved. But now that the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group is Japan’s official candidate, attention is turning to what needs to be done to ensure that the group meets UNESCO’s requirements to become a World Heritage site.

“In the end, because it’s UNESCO that directs World Heritage sites, we have to get the structure of a bid past their eyes,” Matsui added.

To win its approval, UNSECO asks a number of questions about the proposed site’s uniqueness, creativity, connection to living events and traditions, and structural integrity. But what’s most important, the prefecture says, is value.

“To get on the World Heritage list, the candidate site must be of ‘Outstanding Universal Value,’ and meet certain criteria. A detailed written history of the site is less important to getting on the list than proving it has value,” said Hiroshi Yamagami, an Osaka prefectural official involved with the bid.

Yamagami said the plan was for a provisional bid to be sent by the central government to UNESCO this autumn. The final, official bid documents would be submitted to the U.N. agency by January.

“After that, representatives from the International Council on Monuments and Sites, which advises the World Heritage Committee, would visit in the summer and early autumn of 2018. They’d deliver their report on the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group in 2019, and the final decision to grant or reject World Heritage status would come from UNESCO around the summer of that same year,” Yamagami said.

For Sakai, getting the Mozu-area kofun listed is expected to lead to an economic windfall. A city estimate says the economic impact could be ¥100 billion for Osaka Prefecture, including about ¥33.8 billion for Sakai, mostly in the form of increased visitors. However, Sakai Mayor Osami Takeyama is also worried about how, exactly, to explain what visitors are seeing.

“Presentation (of the kofun) is becoming an issue. How do we present the kofun in the information center in a way that is convincing to those who have come?” asked the mayor in early August.

That question is likely to be answered over the coming weeks as Matsui, Takeyama and the prefectural government consult Diet members, the Cultural Affairs Agency and the Imperial Household Agency on what the final recommendation to UNESCO will look like. Given the sensitivities involved, what UNESCO officials are handed in January could make very interesting, and possibly controversial, reading indeed.
- source : Japan Times -


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- Reference in Japanese -
- Reference in English -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .

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