Showing posts with label - - - History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - History. Show all posts

2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真



. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise



. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).


. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #heianabclist #abclist #korea -
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2016-10-07

Nara and Persia

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period .
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Nara and Persia
奈良時代 / ペルシャ人役人存在


- quote Japan Times -
Ancient inscription suggests Persian official worked in 8th century Nara
Ancient Japan may have been far more cosmopolitan than previously thought, archaeologists said Wednesday, pointing to fresh evidence of a Persian official working in the former capital of Nara more than 1,000 years ago.



Present-day Iran and Japan were known to have had direct trade links since at least the 7th century, but new testing on a piece of wood — first discovered in the ’60s — suggest broader ties, the researchers said.

Infrared imaging revealed previously unreadable characters on the wood — a standard writing surface in Japan before paper — that named a Persian official living in the country.

The official worked at an academy where government officials were trained, said Akihiro Watanabe, a researcher at the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.

The official may have been teaching mathematics, Watanabe added, pointing to ancient Iran’s expertise in the subject.

“Although earlier studies have suggested there were exchanges with Persia as early as the 7th century, this is the first time a person as far away as Persia was known to have worked in Japan,” he said.

“And this suggests Nara was a cosmopolitan city where foreigners were treated equally.”

Nara was the capital of Japan known as Heijokyo from around 710 to around 784 before it was moved to Kyoto and later to present-day Tokyo.

The discovery comes after another team of researchers last month unearthed ancient Roman coins at the ruins of an old castle in Okinawa Prefecture.

It was the first time coins from the once mighty empire have been discovered in Japan, thousands of kilometers from where they were likely minted.
- source : Japan Times -


奈良市の平城宮跡から出土した8世紀中頃の木簡に、ペルシャ(現代のイラン付近)を意味する「破斯(はし)」という名字を持つ役人の名前が書かれていたことが、奈良文化財研究所の調査でわかった。
source : news.yahoo.co.jp/pickup


破斯清通 - はしのきよみち: Hashi no Kiyomichi

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- Reference in Japanese -
- Reference in English -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #naranandperisa #persianara -
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2016-04-14

signature kao and osumitsuki

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature


周匝青木家古文書 - 武兵太の花押 (嘉永元年) 1848
- Look at more samples -
source : geocities.jp/ja3fen2/aoki_komonjo


- quote -
Kaō first appeared in China during the Tang Dynasty,
and began to be used in Japan during the Heian period.
Though their use became far less widespread after the Edo period, they continue to be used even by some contemporary politicians and other famous people. The reading and identification of individual kaō often requires specialist knowledge; whole books devoted to the topic have been published.
Often used by a Japanese swordsmith on sword tang (nakago).
- source : wikipedia -

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osumitsuki お墨付き, 御墨付き official document

An official document, ending with the Kao signature, given by the Shogun to a retainer when giving him a domain as a new regent or making other promises.

Now it is also an expression of approval.
taikoban o osu 太鼓判を押す stamp of approval





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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures


............................................................................. Miyagi 宮城県
Matsushima 松島町

Inozaki Inari 磯崎稲荷 Inozaki Shrine - 花押

文禄の朝鮮の役(1592)に、磯崎の水主が伊達勢の水軍として高麗に渡ったが、磯崎稲荷も眷属の狐を従えて出陣したといい、肥前の名護屋に滞陣中、その中の1匹が淀君の侍女について侍女が病気になる。それを追い出そうとすると、「われこそは奥州松島は磯崎明神の眷属なるぞ」と力み返ったので、太閤大いに怒り、「汝早々に狐めを退散させずば、やわかそのままに差し置くべき」と、お叱り状に、稲荷太明神殿、太閤秀吉としたため、花押までつけて遣わしたので、狐も逃げ出し、侍女の病気も治ったという。このお叱り状は磯崎稲荷に長く伝えられていた。


............................................................................. Niigata 新潟県
Aga 阿賀町

kitsune 狐 Fox

德川時代、伊達政宗に滅ぼされたカナガニトウトオミノカミの遺臣淸野孫右衛門が漆沢集落に来て、肝煎になった。その五代目が武家復興を月山権現に念じて二十一日の願掛けをした。途中、痩せた狐の親子に赤飯を振る舞ってやった。満願の日、德川の家老オニコがお墨付きを持って迎えに来て、そのまま道中した。道中は犬止めの禁が出た。新発田街道を通って聖篭で夜が明けると、行列はなく槍だと思っていたのは萱であった。孫右衛門はそのまま落ち延び、息子ともう独り着いていったものは帰ってきた。

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Kao of Tokugawa, now even on a Zippo lighter!
ZIPPO 戦国武将 家紋・花押シリーズ 徳川家康

- source : amazon.co.jp -

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役者絵の花押にほふや枇杷の花
yakusha-e no kaoo niou ya biwa no hana

the signature of the actor's print
is so fragrant . . .
loquat blossoms


北川みよ子 Kawakami Miyoko

. biwa no hana 枇杷のはな (びわのはな) loquat blossoms .
- kigo for mid-winter -


source : tweez.net/ukiyoeota
五代目市川団十郎 Ichikawa Danjuro V

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遺言の末尾に花押初時雨
塚本邦雄

遠き祖の花押に憑かれ返り花
松本澄江

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- Reference - 花押 -
- Reference - 御墨付き -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. tera-uke shoomon 寺請証文 Shomon document of proof from a temple.

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #kaosignature #osumitsuki #signature #taikoban -
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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2016-04-10

Natural Disasters LIST

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Natural Disasters and Legends 自然災害 伝説 shizen saigai
- Naturkatastrophe - desaster


There are many forms of natural disasters ever since human beings settled on the Islands of Japan.


source : roof-partner.com/natural-disaster
自然災害とは . . .

This is a growing list of legends and tales related to them.
- drought, earthquake, flooding, landslides, tsunami, typhoon, volcanic eruption -

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drought often followed by famine
. hideri 旱 kanbatsu 旱魃 drought .
旱 10 to explore
旱魃 93 to explore

. kikin 飢饉 great famine .


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10

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. earthquake, jishin 地震 Legends about Earthquakes .
Earthquakes in Kumamoto, April, 2016


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10

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floods, flooding
. koozui 洪水(こうずい)flood, flooding .


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10


111 to explore
demizu 出水 17 to explore

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landslides, mudslides
. doshakuzure 土砂崩れ landslide legends .
gakekuzure 崖崩れ / jisuberi 地滑り
masago 土砂 (マサゴ) / dosha 土砂 earth and sand - for construction work

. dosha-kaji 土砂加持 ritual to prevent landslides .

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. tsunami 津波 Tsunami .
and the
Tohoku Region Pacific Ocean Offshore Earthquake March 11, 2011
.
1771 - Great Yaeyama Tsunami 八重山大津波 (also called 明和の大津波, the Great Tsunami of Meiwa)
.
yamatsunami 山津波 "mountain Tsunami", landslide

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typhoon
. taifuu 台風 typhoon, Taifun .

31 to explore


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10

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volcanic eruption
. kazan 火山 volcano .
funka 噴火 10 to explore
kazan 火山 2 to explore
焼火山権現 2 to explore
火山弾 1 to explore

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Main volcanos in Kyushu . . . all in one line . . .
in extension of the
the Japanese Median Tectonic Line (MTL) (中央構造線 Chūō Kōzō Sen),
with respect to the strong quakes in Kumamoto in April 2016.


source : qbiz.jp/article

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- Reference - nichibun yokai database -


天下大変 -資料に見る江戸時代の災害 Tenka Taihen !
- reference : archives.go.jp/exhibition -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #naturaldisasters #disasters #desasters #naturkatastrophen -
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2016-02-22

Haniwa figures

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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haniwa 埴輪 / はにわ terracotta clay figures
and the clan Hajibe, Haji-Be 土師部 / 土部



The Haniwa (埴輪) are terracotta clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century AD) of the history of Japan.
Haniwa were created according to the wazumi technique, in which mounds of coiled clay were built up to shape the figure, layer by layer.
The Haniwa were made with water-based clay and dried into a coarse and absorbent material that stood the test of time. Their name means “circle of clay” referring to how they were arranged in a circle above the tomb. The protruding parts of the figures were made separately and then attached, while a few things were carved into them. They were smoothed out by a wooden paddle. Earth terraces were arranged to place them with a cylindrical base into the ground, where the earth would hold them in place.
- MORE in the WIKIPEDIA !


. doguu, Dogū 土偶 clay figure, clay figurine .
small humanoid and animal figurines made during the late Jōmon period (14,000 BC to 400 BC) of prehistoric Japan

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haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder” or “circle of clay”
clay image at ancient burial mounds
discussion on Japanese haniwa (埴輪) and the kofun (古墳) period.
..... haniwa were meant to be seen.
That is, instead of being buried deep underground with the deceased, haniwa occupied and marked the open surfaces of the colossal tombs. However, it is unlikely that they were readily visible to any person who happened to pass by since the tombs were sacred, ritualized spaces that were usually surrounded by one or more moats. As a result, close visual contact with haniwa would not have been easy for unauthorized visitors. .....
Monumental tombs and early Japan
Three periods in tomb-building practices
Evolution and placement of haniwa
Haniwa in the form of animals, people and buildings
What role did haniwa play?
Style
Closeup of the Warrior Haniwa

- source : Dr. Yoko Hsueh Shirai -

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- quote -
Haji ware (土師器 Hajiki)
is a type of plain, unglazed, reddish-brown Japanese pottery or earthenware that was produced during the Kofun, Nara, and Heian periods of Japanese history. It was used for both ritual and utilitarian purposes, and many examples have been found in Japanese tombs, where they form part of the basis of dating archaeological sites.
- History -
Haji ware evolved in the 4th century AD (during the Tumulus period) from the Yayoi ware of the preceding period. The ornate decorations of Yayoi pottery were replaced by a plain, undecorated style, and the shapes began to become standardized. Great amounts of this pottery were produced by dedicated craft workshops in what later became the provinces of Yamato and Kawachi, and spread from there throughout western Japan, eventually reaching the eastern provinces. Some Haji ware pottery has been found in the enormous tombs of the Japanese emperors. By the end of the 5th century, Haji pottery was imitating Sue ware forms.
In the Nara period,
Haji ware was often burnished and smoke-blackened by being fired in an oxygen-reduction atmosphere but at low temperatures. This sub-style is known as kokushoku-doki.
Haji ware came to an end with the development of glazes and ceramics in the late Heian period.
During a 2007 underwater archaeology survey on Ojikajima by the Asian Research Institute of Underwater Archaeology, examples of Chinese ceramics and Haji ware was recovered.



- Characteristics -
Haji ware is typically a rust-red pottery, made of clay that was built up in rings or coils, rather than being thrown on a potters wheel. The exterior and usually the interior surfaces were finished by scraping smooth with a piece of wood. It was fired at temperatures below 1000 deg C in surface fires or oxidizing fires rather than kilns.
Most of Haji ware
is undecorated and has wide rims. However, ritual and funerary objects were also made in the form of houses, boats, animals, women, hunters, musicians, and warriors, which were often placed inside tombs On occasion, these objects were placed outside the tomb to guard it. One pot that was found at an archaeological site in Hachiōji, Tokyo has a globular body, averted mouth, rounded base, solid triangular handle, painted in dark grey pigment on one side with a human face painted on the front.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote -
Hajibe 土師部 / 土師氏 / 土部とも書く。
土師連(むらじ)を伴造(とものみやつこ)とし、朝廷に埴輪(はにわ haniwa)・土師器(はじき hajiki)を貢進し、葬礼をも担当したトモまたはその部民。『日本書紀』垂仁(すいにん Suinin)天皇32年条に、土部連の始祖
野見宿禰(のみのすくね Nomi no Sukune)が出雲(いずも Izumo)国(島根県)土部100人を率い殉人(じゅんにん)の代用として埴輪をつくった説話がみえる。
土師部は出雲をはじめ山城(やましろ)、摂津(せっつ)、河内(かわち)、和泉(いずみ)、遠江(とおとうみ)、武蔵(むさし)、下総(しもうさ)、常陸(ひたち)、美濃(みの)、若狭(わかさ)、丹後(たんご)、但馬(たじま)、因幡(いなば)、石見(いわみ)に設定された。雄略(ゆうりゃく)天皇17年条に贄土師部(にえのはじべ Nie no Hajibe)の貢進がみえ、のち諸陵司の伴部となった。
[前川明久]
- source : kotobank.jp -


. Hajidera 土師寺 and 道明寺天満宮 / Osaka .
Domyoji Tenmangu Shrine originates in Haji Shrine that Haji Tribe built in 3 A.D. to enshrine their ancestor Amenohohi no mikoto (the son of Amaterasu Omikami, the goddess of the sun).

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- quote -
Kofun (300 – 710 AD)
From the late 4th century AD, the dead start to get gifts in their tombs such as iron weapons and armour. These, and tomb paintings, are clear signs of contact with Korea and immigration of Korean artisans. So, next to the Suebe clay work that we have seen already in the Joumon period, these immigrants started making Hajibe clay work (darker, reddish). They made Haniwa out of this, which are little clay figures or cylindrical shapes, put on top of tomb hills. Also, there is evidence of some Japanese state being politically and militaristically involved on the Korean peninsula.
- source : ansui.wordpress.com/ -


Hajibe : Families or clans of potters (some from Korea) who, from about the fourth ... Yayoi pottery, mainly for the Yamato court; they probably also made haniwa.

- reference : haniwa hajibe clan -

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野見宿禰と大和出雲 / 池田 雅雄

. Nomi no Sukune 野見宿禰 .
and the Sumo Jinja 相撲神社
The 菅原氏 Sugawara clan is said to be descended from 天穂日命 Ameno Hohino Mikoto and the Haji clan, one of whose ancestors was Nomi no Sukune, famous as the pioneer of Sumo.

Nomi no Sukune is mythically credited with contriving the haniwa, the terracotta figurines, which were used doing the Kofun period ...
Making the first haniwa under Nomi no Sukune's supervision ...

A potter from Izumo named Nomi no Sukune declared:
"It is not good to bury living men upright at the tumulus of a prince. ... Let it be the law for future ages to substitute things of clay for living men and set them up at tumuli." ...

- reference : haniwa nomi no sukune -

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mogari もがり【殯】 funeral rites

- quote -
THE MOGARI RITE THROUGH THE HISTORY OF JAPANESE CULTURE
..... The supposed etymology is as following. Mogari - from mo (mourning) + agari (ascend to heaven, /soul/ is flying away). Araki - /temporary/mausoleum (tomb) of newly dead \whose spirit is not appeased yet/, comp.; aramitatama - "spirit unappeased", arabotoke - newly dead /before first obon/, arakuchi - first after someone's death shaman's interrogation with his spirit; kijo:shiro - castle, palace, iwaki - "rock/cave tomb", ishiki - stone tomb, okutsuki - deep tomb, imaki - new tomb.
.....
Asobi-be
In- & outside the hinkyu (esp. of a dead sovereign) mogari-no matsuri (funeral festival) took place; its purpose was to call back the soul and bring the dead back to life, to pacify his potentially dangerous spirit in order to pass it to the successor or to send it off to nether world; thus the deification of the dead began. It included mogari-no asobi (funeral "play/game") with various dancing and singing. Beside relatives and officials there were two groups of funeral ritualists called Haji-be and Asobi-be.
Haji-be were constructing hinkyu, tombs, making haniwa. Asobi-be danced chinkon/tamafuri-no mai (dances to appease the souls of the dead) and sang shokonka/chinkonka (songs to call back and pacify the souls).
Asobi-be represented the occupational group of traditional Japanese shamans who were involved not only in funeral rituals, but also in the seasonal erotic festivities kagai\utagaki, other festivals and ceremonies (including Daijosai). Ecstatic dances of Asobi-be (from Hijiki-wake clan) lately developed in nembutsu-odori performed in Buddhist sect Ji-shu: (or Yugyo-ha - School of Wanderers, "yu/asobi"); thus sect Ji-shu: derived from exorcist rituals of asobi-be. Particularly, among its followers were Nogaku actors.
- - - - - read the essay here
- source : ru-jp.org/yaponovedy_baksheev -

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細長いだるまのような踊る埴輪です
A long dancing Haniwa, like Daruma




Look at many more new-type Haniwa items - 2015 - Let's make Haniwa!
- source : kumagaya-bunkazai.jp/museum -


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures


............................................................................. Kyoto 京都 

. Fukakusa-yaki 深草焼 Clay Dolls from Fukakusa .
Clay Dolls from Fushimi - 伏見土人形

Fushimi Doll is a clay doll whose originator is said to be Hajibe who settled in Fukakusa
before the Nara era. 土師部 Hajibe is a tribe who was notable for their skills in making Haniwa (a clay image placed in ancient burial mounds) and earthenware.
The doll was made of clay from Mt. Inari, and was distributed widely, not only in old capital provinces but to Shikoku and Kyushu. The doll became the precursor of clay dolls that number approximately 90 types nationwide, such as Hakata Doll, Tsutsumi Doll of Sendai and Nakano Doll of Shinshu.
- source : ndl.go.jp/scenery/kansai -



............................................................................. Miyazaki 愛媛県



. haniwa ningyoo はにわ人形 Haniwa dolls .



............................................................................. Niigata 新潟県 

Kappa-type Dogu from Niigata, Itoigawa region
新潟土偶(カッパ型)from 新潟県糸魚川市長者


source : haniwadokoro.cart.fc2.com


. 河童 / かっぱ / カッパ - Kappa, the Water Goblin of Japan! .




............................................................................. Osaka 大阪 


埴輪馬 haniwa horse

. Osaka, Sakai town 堺市 .
住吉大社の諸玩具 Clay Dolls and Toys from shrine Sumiyoshi Taisha


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- Reference in Japanese 埴輪 -
- Reference in English -

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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haniwa gangu 埴輪玩具 Haniwa toys


CLICK for more photos !

. gangu 玩具伝説, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .

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source : 白馬の少年

春愁や遠きいくさの埴輪武士
shunshuu ya tooki ikusa no haniwa bushi

spring melancholy -
this Haniwa soldier
of long times past


高知城 seen at the castle in Kochi

河野南畦 Kano Nankei (1913 - 1995)

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冬の日に埴輪掘りたる人死ぬか
とろ~と冬日が溶ける埴輪かな

萩原麦草

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時雨るるや手あげて埴輪夫を恋ふ
野見山朱鳥


太刀佩ける埴輪をのこに梅咲けり
福田蓼汀

愛する時獣皮のような苔の埴輪
赤尾兜子


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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #haniwafigures #haniwadolls -
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. Yakimono 焼物 / Setomono 瀬戸物 pottery, crockery .
- Introduction -

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2015-11-18

Ashikaga Gakko

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy


- quote -
Japan's oldest academic institution. It is located in Ashikaga city, Tochigi Prefecture, about 70 kilometres north of Tokyo.
There has been some controversy as to when it was built, but it is said that it was founded in the ninth century ca. 832 in the Heian period by the poet Ono no Takamura 小野篁
and restored in 1432 by Deputy Shogun Uesugi Norizane 上杉憲実; he imported many classical Chinese books, many of which are still kept in the school.



Many students came from all over Japan to study Confucianism, I Ching and Chinese medicine.
In the 1500s more than 3000 students came to study Confucianism, Chinese Medicine, Divination, and military studies. The famous library contains more than 12,000 volumes (mostly in Chinese) and some of Japan's oldest historical documents,
The pioneering Roman Catholic missionary, Saint Francis Xavier, noted in 1549 that the Ashikaga School was the largest and most famous university of eastern Japan.

After the Meiji Restoration, the Ashikaga School was disestablished. After 1990 several wooden buildings including the former student living quarters, classrooms and the library were restored as a National Historic Site. The re-established school is now under the direction of Ashikaga city Board of Education.

Under the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Edo period (1600 – 1868) Ashikaga town participated in the prosperity of Edo (former name of Tokyo) and two of Ashikagas specialties being soba and silk became and remained famous until modern times. Silk production made Ashikaga town with textile manufacturing one of the leading centers of Japan's industrial revolution. Even today Edo period merchant stronghouses and active textile handcrafters can be seen. In many local souvenir shops fine woven goods can be found.

- source : wikipedia -
- source : en.japantravel.com -

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There were three gates to the compound.


入徳門 Nyutoku gate. Nyutoku is derived from the Chinese characters for "enter" and "virtue". It can be interpreted to mean that by proceeding with the course of study, one enters into the Confucian way of virtue. This gate was erected in 1668.

学校門 School gate, It is known as School gate due to its framed tablet of the Chinese characters that depict "school". It was erected in 1668.

杏壇門 Kyodan gate. This building is still the original.
The name of this gate is derived from the academy where Confucius first began to teach his course of study. It was erected in 1668.



孔子廟 Confucian shrine
It is the oldest Confucian shrine still existing in Japan. The seated image of Confucius, the image of Lord Ono-no Takamura and 4 wooden memorial tablets are dedicated in this wooden structure, that the style of construction was modeled after that used in Ming Dynasty, China.

字降り松 Kanafuri matsu , pine tree shedding Kanji readings
There is an old story that a student wrote a difficult word that he didn't know how to read and couldn't understand on a piece of paper and hung it on this tree. The next morning he found the answer. And after, many people became to follow him. And it became to be called this pine tree "Kanafuri matsu".

南庭園 The Southern Park
方丈 The School building
北庭園 The Northern Park, seen best from the living quarters of the Headmaster.
- source : city.ashikaga.tochigi.jp -

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. Ono no Takamura 小野篁 / Sangi no Takamura 参議篁 .
(802 - 852) - an early Heian period scholar and poet.

Takamura was a descendant of Ono no Imoko who served as Kenzuishi, and his father was Ono no Minemori. He was the grandfather of Ono no Michikaze, one of the three famous calligraphers (三筆 sanpitsu). In 834 he was appointed to Kintōshi, but in 838 after a quarrel with the envoy, Fujiwara no Tsunetsugu, he gave up his professional duties pretending to be ill, and attracted the ire of retired Emperor Saga, who sent him to Oki Province. Within two years he regained the graces of the court and returned to the capital where he was promoted to Sangi.

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Uesugi Norizane 上杉憲実
(1410 – 1466)
was a Japanese samurai of the Uesugi clan who held a number of high government posts during the Muromachi period.



Shugo (Constable) of Awa and Kōzuke Province, he was appointed Kantō kanrei (Shogun's deputy in the Kantō region) in 1419, as an assistant to Kantō kubō Ashikaga Mochiuji. When Mochiuji rebelled against the shogunate, and attacked Norizane directly, Norizane complained to the shogunate, and fled to Kōzuke province. He returned to Kamakura in 1439, following Mochiuji's death.
Norizane, as Kantō kanrei, now controlled the Kantō in the absence of a Kantō kubō; from then on, the kanrei would be the shogun's direct deputy, the kubō serving only as an empty title.
Norizane left his post to his brother Uesugi Kiyotaka soon afterwards, and became a Buddhist monk.
Over the course of his life, he was the patron of the Ashikaga Academy and helped to expand its library.
- source : wikipedia -

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. Manase Dōsan 曲直瀬道三 Manase Dosan .
(1507 - 1594)
He studied medicine at this school.

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- Reference in Japanese -
- Reference in English -

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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華鬘草足利学校の裏に摘む
kemansoo ashikaga gakkoo no ura ni tsumu

bleeding heart blossoms
I picked at the back
of Ashikaga school


岡本敬子 Okamoto Keiko

. kemansoo 華鬘草 "Keman flower" bleeding heart .
- - kigo for late Spring - -


source : ukon3.sblo.jp/article

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足利学校菜園に摘む貝割菜

岩上登代 Iwagami Toyo

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足利学校楷樹裸木そびえしむ

阿部ひろし Abe Hiroshi


. Utamakura 歌枕 place names used in Poetry .

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. Shizutani Gakko 閑谷学校 Shizutani Academy, Okayama .
the oldest free public school in the Japan. built by Lord Mitsumasa Ikeda, to educate the children of the commoners in the province -- not just the children of the samurai class.



Meirinkan (明倫館)
was a han school located in the Chōshū Domain of Japan. The school was one of the three major educational institutions in Japan, along with the Kōdōkan in Mito Domain and Shizutani School in Okayama Domain.
The school was established in 1718 by the 6th Chōshū Domain daimyō Mōri Yoshimoto . . .
Hagi Meirinkan (萩明倫館)
Yamaguchi Meirinkan (山口明倫館) - Kameyama Campus (亀山校地 Kameyama kōchi) in 1861
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



. Tooju shoin 藤樹書院 Toju Private School, Toju Study - Shiga .
Nakae Tōju 中江藤樹 Nakae Toju - "the sage of Ōmi" 近江聖人.
(21 April 1608 – 11 October 1648)

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #ashikagagakko #uesuginorizane #ononotakamura -
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2015-07-27

kinzan ginzan mines

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .
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kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 - gold and silver mines and their legends


Roben prayed to the statue to help him find a gold mine for the emperor, who wanted to use gold to coat the Great Buddha under construction at the Todaiji temple in current Nara.
A gold mine was then found in the Mutsu region, in current Miyagi Prefecture.

. Genji Monogatari  源氏物語 .
- Introduction -

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The most famous gold mine is in Sado Island.

Sado bugyō 佐渡奉行
– Overseers of the island and gold mines of Sado Island.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. The Legend of “Zipangu,” the Land of Gold .

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Hiraizumi Gold Mine 平泉
Hiraizumi's past wealth was based on its local gold mines as the Fujiwara clan attempted to build a "paradise on earth" at the beginning of the 12th century building large temples, palaces and monasteries.
Read more:
http://www.japanvisitor.com/japan-city-guides/hiraizumi-guide#ixzz3h3I0RasF



Narumi kinzan 鳴海金山 Narumi Gold Mine
in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

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Iwami ginzan 石見銀山


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- - - - - Legends - ABC List of the prefectures :

.................................................................. Toyama Aichi 富山県 ....................................................................

大山町
好景気に酔った坑夫が炊きたての飯だけを食べ、冷や飯を谷に投げ捨てた。更に立山町横江の宮の神木を切って坑内の矢留木にした。その神木を運んだ時、後ろから醜い二人のグザ(あばた面)がついてきた。それがシキに入ると天地鳴動して銀山が崩れた。



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- Reference in Japanese -

- Reference in English -

yokai database 妖怪データベース -金山 48 entries (00)
- source : www.nichibun.ac.jp -

yokai database 妖怪データベース - 銀山
- source : www.nichibun.ac.jp -

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. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. minwa 民話 folktales / densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends .
- Introduction -

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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- #kinzangoldmine #ginzansilvermine #goldmine -
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